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Educational impact of hand motion analysis in the evaluation of fast examination skills

  • Mauro Zago
  • Chiarella Sforza
  • Diego Mariani
  • Matteo Marconi
  • Alan Biloslavo
  • Antonio La Greca
  • Hayato Kurihara
  • Andrea Casamassima
  • Samantha Bozzo
  • Francesco Caputo
  • Manuela Galli
  • Matteo ZagoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing pressure pushes towards the objective competence assessment of clinical operators. Hand motion analysis (HMA) was introduced to measure surgical and clinical procedures; its recent application to FAST examinations leaves unsolved issues. This study aimed at determining optimal HMA parameters to discriminate between operators’ skill levels, and which FAST tasks are experience-dependent.

Methods

Ten experienced (EG) and 13 beginner (BG) sonographers performed a FAST examination on one female and one male model. A motion capture system returned the duration, working volume, number of movements (absolute and time normalized), and hand path length (absolute and time normalized) of each view.

Results

BG took more time in completing specific views, with a higher working volume (p = 0.003) and longer hands path (p < 0.001). The number of movements was lower in the EG (p < 0.001) and differed between views (p = 0.014). No significant Group/Model differences were found for the normalized number of movements. The LUQ view required a higher number of movements (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

HMA identified kinematic parameters discriminating between proficiency level and critical subtasks in the FAST examination. These findings could be the base for a focused HMA-based evaluation of performances following a proctored training period. There is room to incorporate HMA into simulation metrics and evidence-based credentialing standards for clinical ultrasound applications.

Keywords

Skill assessment Ultrasound Competence FAST Initial assessment Management 

Notes

Funding

The author received no specific funding for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery UnitPoliclinico San PietroBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences for HealthUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and PhysiologyNational Research CouncilSegrateItaly
  4. 4.General Surgery DepartmentLegnano Hospital, ASST Ovest MilaneseLegnanoItaly
  5. 5.General Surgery DepartmentS. Maria delle Stelle Hospital, ASST Melegnano e MartesanaMilanItaly
  6. 6.General Surgery DepartmentCattinara University HospitalTriesteItaly
  7. 7.Department of Surgery, Emergency Surgery Unit, Policlinico GemelliCatholic University of the Sacred HeartRomeItaly
  8. 8.Emergency and Trauma Surgery UnitHumanitas Research HospitalRozzanoItaly
  9. 9.General Surgery DepartmentS. Maria delle Stelle Hospital, ASST Melegnano e Martesana MelzoCernusco sul NaviglioItaly
  10. 10.Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering (DEIB)Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  11. 11.Fondazione Istituto Farmacologico Filippo SerperoMilanItaly

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