Viscoelastic hemostatic fibrinogen assays detect fibrinolysis early
- 352 Downloads
Viscoelastic hemostatic assays are emerging as the standard-of-care in the early detection of post-injury coagulopathy. TEG and ROTEM are most commonly used. Although similar in technique, each uses different reagents, which may affect their sensitivity to detect fibrinolysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the ability of each device to detect fibrinolysis.
TEG (Rapid, Kaolin, Functional Fibrinogen) and ROTEM (EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM) were run simultaneously on normal blood as well as blood containing tPA from healthy volunteers (n = 10). A two-tailed, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to determine the significance between parameters obtained from normal blood and blood with tPA, and individual TEG and ROTEM assays, respectively.
TEG detected significant changes in clot strength and 30-min lysis after the addition of tPA (p < 0.0001). All ROTEM assays detected changes in the 30-min lysis (p < 0.0001), but only INTEM detected changes in clot strength (p < 0.05). Kaolin and Rapid TEG assays detected greater changes in clot strength and lysis, but INTEM and EXTEM had decreased lysis onset times compared to TEG (p < 0.001). Functional Fibrinogen and FIBTEM assays detected lysis sooner than other TEG/ROTEM assays, and were comparable.
TEG assays detect greater changes in clot strength compared to ROTEM. Despite this, Functional Fibrinogen and FIBTEM assays detect fibrinolysis sooner than their corresponding intrinsic and extrinsic assays. Therefore, fibrinogen assays should be employed in actively bleeding trauma patients in order to provide timely antifibrinolytic therapy.
KeywordsThrombelastography Thromboelastometry Fibrinogen Trauma-induced coagulopathy Fibrinolysis
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 GM049222 and T32 GM008315 grants). Devices, reagents, and supplies were provided through Haemonetics and Tem Innovations GmbH.
Conflict of interest
J. N. Harr, E. E. Moore, T. L. Chin, M. P. Chapman, A. Ghasabyan, J. R. Stringham, A. Banerjee, and C. C. Silliman report no conflict of interest.
Ethical standard statement
This study was approved under a protocol by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, and has, therefore, been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All healthy volunteers gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
- 2.Plotkin AJ, Wade CE, Jenkins DH, Smith KA, Noe JC, Park MS, Perkins JG, Holcomb JB. A reduction in clot formation rate and strength assessed by thrombelastography is indicative of transfusion requirements in patients with penetrating injuries. J Trauma. 2008;64(2 Suppl):S64–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, Tjardes T, Rixen D, Paffrath T, Simanski C, Neugebauer E, Bouillon B; AG Polytrauma of the German Trauma Society (DGU). Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients. Injury. 2007;38:298–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Cotton BA, Harvin JA, Kostousouv V, Minei KM, Radwan ZA, Schöchl H, Wade CE, Holcomb JB, Matijevic N. Hyperfibrinolysis at admission is an uncommon but highly lethal event associated with shock and prehospital fluid administration. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(2):365–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.CRASH-2 trial collaborators, Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, Caballero J, Coats T, Dewan Y, El-Sayed H, Gogichaishvili T, Gupta S, Herrera J, Hunt B, Iribhogbe P, Izurieta M, Khamis H, Komolafe E, Marrero MA, Mejía-Mantilla J, Miranda J, Morales C, Olaomi O, Olldashi F, Perel P, Peto R, Ramana PV, Ravi RR, Yutthakasemsunt S. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9734):23–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Holcomb JB, Minei KM, Scerbo ML, Radwan ZA, Wade CE, Kozar RA, Gill BS, Albarado R, McNutt MK, Khan S, Adams PR, McCarthy JJ, Cotton BA. Admission rapid thrombelastography can replace conventional coagulation tests in the emergency department: experience with 1974 consecutive trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2012;256(3):476–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Wohlauer M, Johnson JL, Pezold M, Lawrence J, Biffl WL, Burlew CC, Barnett C, Sawyer M, Sauaia A. Initial experiences with point-of-care rapid thrombelastography for management of life-threatening postinjury coagulopathy. Transfusion. 2012;52(1):23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Haemonetics. TEG 5000 System User Manual. P/N 06-510-US, Manual revision: AC. Niles, IL: Haemonetics Corporation, Haemoscope Division; 2010.Google Scholar
- 16.Tem Innovations GmbH. ROTEM (delta whole blood haemostasis system using thromboelastometry) US operating manual. REF 200120-USA. Manual Version:1.6.1.02.US. Munich, Germany: Tem Innovations GmbH; 2011.Google Scholar
- 28.CRASH-2 collaborators, Roberts I, Shakur H, Afolabi A, Brohi K, Coats T, Dewan Y, Gando S, Guyatt G, Hunt BJ, Morales C, Perel P, Prieto-Merino D, Woolley T. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9771):1096–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar