Strahlentherapie und Onkologie

, Volume 187, Issue 7, pp 433–441 | Cite as

Clinical Comparison of Dose Calculation Using the Enhanced Collapsed Cone Algorithm vs. a New Monte Carlo Algorithm

  • Irina Fotina
  • Gabriele Kragl
  • Bernhard Kroupa
  • Robert Trausmuth
  • Dietmar Georg
Original Article


Comparison of the dosimetric accuracy of the enhanced collapsed cone (eCC) algorithm with the commercially available Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation for complex treatment techniques.

Material and Methods:

A total of 8 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 2 stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) lung cases were calculated with eCC and MC algorithms with the treatment planning systems (TPS) Oncentra MasterPlan 3.2 (Nucletron) and Monaco 2.01 (Elekta/CMS). Fluence optimization as well as sequencing of IMRT plans was primarily performed using Monaco. Dose prediction errors were calculated using MC as reference. The dose–volume histrogram (DVH) analysis was complemented with 2D and 3D gamma evaluation. Both algorithms were compared to measurements using the Delta4 system (Scandidos).


Recalculated with eCC IMRT plans resulted in lower planned target volume (PTV) coverage, as well as in lower organs-at-risk (OAR) doses up to 8%. Small deviations between MC and eCC in PTV dose (1–2%) were detected for IMRT cases, while larger deviations were observed for SBRT (up to 5%). Conformity indices of both calculations were similar; however, the homogeneity of the eCC calculated plans was slightly better. Delta4 measurements confirmed high dosimetric accuracy of both TPS.


Mean dose prediction errors < 3% for PTV suggest that both algorithms enable highly accurate dose calculations under clinical conditions. However, users should be aware of slightly underestimated OAR doses using the eCC algorithm.

Key Words

Dose calculation Monte Carlo Collapsed cone algorithm IMRT 

Dosimetrischer Vergleich eines erweiterten Collapsed-Cone-Algorithmus mit einem neuen kommerziell verfügbaren Monte-Carlo-Algorithmus anhand klinisch relevanter Fälle


Vergleich der Dosisberechnungsgenauigkeit eines erweiterten Collapsed-Cone-(eCC-)Algorithmus mit einem kommerziell verfügbaren Monte-Carlo-(MC-)Algorithmus anhand von komplexen Bestrahlungstechniken.

Material und Methodik:

8 IMRT- und 2 SBRT-Pläne wurden jeweils mit dem eCC-Algorithmus des Bestrahlungsplanungssystems Oncentra 3.2 (Nucletron) und mit dem Monte-Carlo-Algorithmus von Monaco 2.01 (Elekta/CMS) berechnet. Die Fluenz-Optimierung und Sequenzierung der IMRT-Pläne wurden mittels Monaco durchgeführt. Zusätzlich zur DVH-Analyse wurden eine 2D und 3D Gamma-Index-Evaluierung durchgeführt. Darüber hinaus erfolgte eine dosimetrische Überprüfung der Bestrahlungspläne mit dem Delta4-System (Scandidos).


Im Vergleich zum MC-Algorithmus resultierte die Nachberechnung der IMRT-Pläne mit dem eCC in einer geringeren Abdeckung der Zielvolumina sowie in einer um bis zu 8% niedrigeren Dosis für Risikoorgane (OAR). Bei den IMRT-Fällen waren die Abweichungen zwischen den PTV-Dosen der beiden Algorithmen gering (1–2%), wohingegen die größten Abweichungen (bis zu 5%) für SBRT festgestellt wurden. Die ermittelten Konformitätsindizes waren für beide Algorithmen sehr ähnlich; die Homogenität war für eCC-Pläne geringfügig besser. Die Delta4-Messungen bestätigten die hohe Dosisberechnungsgenauigkeit beider Algorithmen.


Die mittlere Unsicherheit der berechneten PTV-Dosen betrug weniger als 3%, d.h. mit beiden Algorithmen kann eine zuverlässige Dosisvorhersage unter klinischen Bedingungen erzielt werden. Bei der Beurteilung von mit eCC berechneten Plänen sollte die geringfügige Unterschätzung der Dosis in OAR berücksichtigt werden.


Dosisberechnung Monte Carlo Collapsed-Cone-Algorithmus IMRT 


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Copyright information

© Urban & Vogel 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irina Fotina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gabriele Kragl
    • 1
  • Bernhard Kroupa
    • 1
  • Robert Trausmuth
    • 1
  • Dietmar Georg
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of RadiotherapyMedical University Vienna/AKH WienViennaAustria
  2. 2.Division Medical Radiation Physics, Department of RadiotherapyMedical University Vienna / AKH ViennaViennaAustria

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