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Analgesie in der Intensivmedizin

  • J. R. OrtleppEmail author
  • F. Luethje
  • R. Walz
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die Applikation von Sedativa und Analgetika ist auf der Intensivstation Routine. Die richtige Diskriminierung zwischen Delir, Angst und Schmerzen ist von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Strategie und Auswahl der Präparate. Neben der richtigen Sedierung ist die korrekte Schmerztherapie essenziell für die Lebensqualität und Prognose der Intensivpatienten.

Ziel

Ziel der Arbeit war es, klare Empfehlungen zur Schmerzerfassung und -therapie auf Intensivstationen zu formulieren.

Material und Methoden

Es erfolgte eine strukturierte Literaturanalyse von PubMed-gelisteten Publikationen zum Thema „pain“ und „ICU“.

Ergebnisse

Patienten auf der Intensivstation sind einer Vielzahl von schmerzauslösenden Prozeduren und Situationen ausgesetzt. Die Schmerzwahrnehmung wird u. a. auch vom Grad der Orientierung und Angst sowie von der Sedierung beeinflusst. Die Applikation von Analgetika reduziert den empfundenen Stress der Patienten.

Diskussion

Im Vordergrund steht die Sensibilisierung von pflegerischen und ärztlichen Mitarbeitern für Schmerznoxen und Schmerzwahrnehmung. Die Schmerzerfassung sollte möglichst objektiv erfolgen. Es gilt, Therapieziele zu definieren und neben der adäquaten Medikamentenauswahl auch die nichtmedikamentösen Ansätze konsequent zu verfolgen.

Schlüsselwörter

Schmerzerfassung Analgetika Nichtpharmakologische Schmerztherapie Angst Delir 

Analgesia in intensive care medicine

Abstract

Background

The administration of sedatives and analgesics on the intensive care unit (ICU) is routine daily practice. The correct discrimination between delirium, pain and anxiety or confusion is essential for the strategy and selection of medication. The correct pain therapy and sedation are essential for patient quality of life on the ICU and for the prognosis.

Objective

The aim of this article is to present state of the art recommendations on the classification of pain and pain therapy on the ICU.

Material and methods

An online search was carried out in PubMed for publications on the topics of “pain” and “ICU”.

Results

Critical care patients are frequently subjected to many procedures and situations which can cause pain. The perception of pain is, among other things, influenced by the degree of orientation, anxiety and the degree of sedation. The administration of analgesics and non-pharmacological approaches are effective in reducing the stress perceived by patients.

Discussion

The main aim is improvement in the awareness of nursing and medical personnel for pain inducers and pain perception in ICU patients. The classification of pain must be made objectively. Therapeutic targets must be defined and in addition to the correct selection of pain medication, non-pharmacological approaches must also be consistently implemented.

Keywords

Pain measurement Analgesics Pain treatment, non-pharmcological Anxiety Delirium 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

J.R. Ortlepp, F. Luethje und R. Walz geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Innere Medizin und IntensivmedizinAsklepios Kliniken SchildautalSeesenDeutschland
  2. 2.Internistische Intensivstation, Klinik für Innere Medizin und IntensivmedizinAsklepios Kliniken SchildautalSeesenDeutschland
  3. 3.Klinik für AnästhesiologieUniversitätsklinikum DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland

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