Medizinische Klinik

, Volume 104, Issue 4, pp 296–302 | Cite as

Körperliche Aktivität und Sport zur Prävention und Therapie von inneren Erkrankungen im Seniorenalter

  • Burkhard Weisser
  • Manuela Preuß
  • Hans-Georg Predel
ÜBERSICHT

Zusammenfassung

Die Anzahl älterer Menschen nimmt in den westlichen Industrieländern immer weiter zu. Damit steigt auch die Prävalenz altersbedingter Erkrankungen. Bei vielen dieser Erkrankungen bieten Sport und körperliche Aktivität wirksame präventive und therapeutische Ansätze. Dieses Potential wird in viel zu geringem Maße ausgeschöpft, da nur ein kleiner Teil der Älteren körperlich aktiv ist. Die körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit ist der wichtigste gesundheitliche Schutzfaktor und sollte auch bei älteren Menschen gezielt trainiert werden. Viele Empfehlungen beinhalten ausschließlich Ausdauersportprogramme, doch auch Kraft- und Koordinationstraining haben positive gesundheitliche Effekte bei Erkrankungen des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems, der Lunge, des Stoffwechsels, bei Tumorerkrankungen, bei Demenz und vielen anderen mehr. Altersspezifische Trainingsprogramme sind inzwischen Bestandteil vieler Empfehlungen zum Gesundheitssport.

Schlüsselwörter:

Kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen Prävention Körperliche Aktivität Sport Körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit Gesundheit Höheres Lebensalter 

Physical Activity for Prevention and Therapy of Internal Diseases in the Elderly

Abstract

There is a growing number of elderly people in Western societies. Therefore, the prevalence of age-associated diseases increases. For most of these conditions, exercise and physical activity play a major role in the prevention and therapy. However, it is well established that the level of physical activity is lowest in elderly people. Physical fitness continues to be the most important protective health factor and should be improved in the elderly population. Many exercise recommendations include only endurance programs, but strength and coordination also deliver positive therapeutic effects in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, lung diseases, neoplasms, and many other pathologic conditions including dementia. Age-specific recommendations should be included in exercise programs for health.

Key Words:

Cardiovascular diseases Prevention Physical activity Sports Health Elderly Physical fitness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vogel T, Brechat PH, Leprête PM, et al. Health benefits of physical activity in older patients: a review. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63:303–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tanaka H. Habitual exercise for the elderly. Fam Community Health 2009;32:57–65.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shephard RJ, Balady GJ. Exercise as cardiovascular therapy. Circulation 1999;99:963–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hakim A, Petrovitch H, Burchfiel C, et al. Effects of walking on mortality among nonsmoking retired men. N Engl J Med 1998;338:94–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blair S, Kohl H, Barlow C, et al. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. JAMA 1995;273:1093–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee IM, Sesso HD, Paffenberger RS. Physical activity and risk of lung cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28:620–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rost R. Sport- und Bewegungstherapie bei Inneren Erkrankungen. Köln: Deutscher ärzte-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hollmann W, Strüder HK. Sportmedizin: Grundlagen für körperliche Aktivität, Training und Präventivmedizin, 5. Aufl. Stuttgart-New York: Schattauer, 2009.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evans WJ. Exercise training guidelines for the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:12–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Preuβ P, Preuβ M. Silver Generation–Krafttrai ning für Senioren: muskuläre Fitness aufbauen, bewahren, steigern. Königswinter: Heel, 2008.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pratley RE, Hagberg JM, Dengel DR, et al. Aerobic exercise training-induced reduced reductions in abdominal fat and glucose stimulated insulin responses in middleaged and older men. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1055–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weintraub MS, Rosen Y, Otto R, et al.. Physical exercise conditioning in the absence of weight loss reduces fasting and postprandial triglyceride- rich lipoprotein levels. Circulation 1989;79:1007–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hurley BF, Roth SM. Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age related disease. Sports Med 2000;30:249–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lokey EA, Tran ZV. Effects of exercise training on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in women: a meta-analysis. Int Sports Med 1989;10:424–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kistler T, Weisser B. Zusammenhänge zwischen Fettstoffwechselstörungen und Hypertonie bei 10892 Heureka-Studienteilnehmern. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1993;82:1222–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weisser B, Mengden T, Vetter H. Arterielle Hypertonie bei älteren Patienten. Nieren Hoch druckkr 2000;29:282–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siewers M, Weisser B. Krafttraining und arterielle Hypertonie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2007;132:2449–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Predel HG, Schramm T. Exercise in arterial hypertension. Herz 2006;31:525–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martel GF, Hurlbut DE, Lott ME, et al. Strength training normalizes resting blood pressure in 65- to 73-year old men and women with high-normal blood pressure. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1215–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Connor GT, Buring JE, Yusuf S, et al. An overview of randomized trials of rehabilitation with exercise after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1989;80:234–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jeschke D, Zeilberger K. Körperliches Training bei koronarer Herzkrankheit. Internist (Berl) 2000;41:1374–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    King PA, Savage P, Ades PA. Home resistance training in an elderly woman with coronary heart disease. Cardiopulm Rehabil 2000;20:126–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leon AS. Exercise following myocardial infarction. Current recommendations. Sports Med 2000;29:301–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Löllgen H, Dickhuth HH, Dirschedl P. Vorbeugen durch körperliche Bewegung. Dtsch ärztebl 1998;95:1228–34.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller HS, Paffenbarger RS. The prevention and treatment of coronary disease: the case for exercise. In: Shephard RJ, Miller HS, eds. Exercise and the heart in health and disease. New York: Dekker, 1999:295–302.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oka RK, De Marco T, Haskell WL, et al. Impact of a home-based walking and resistance training program on quality of life in patients with heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:365–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beckers PJ, Denollet J, Possemiers NM, et al. Combined endurance-resistance training vs. endurance training in patients with chronic heart failure: a prospective randomized study. Eur Heart J 2008;29:1858–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McKelvie RS. Exercise training in patients with heart failure: clinical outcomes, safety, and indications. Heart Fail Rev 2008;13:3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Belardinelli R, Georgiou D, Cianci G, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of long-term moderate exercise training in chronic heart failure: effects on functional capacity, quality of life, and clinical outcome. Circulation 1999;99:1173–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tan KH, Cotterell D, Sykes K, et al. Exercise training for claudicants: changes in blood flow, cardiorespiratory system, metabolic functions, blood rheology and lipid profile. Eur J Endovasc Surg 2000;20:72–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McDermott MM, Ades P, Guralnik JM, et al. Treadmill exercise and resistance training in patients with peripherial arterial disease with and without intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301:165–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee IM, Hennekens CH, Berger K, et al. Exercise and risk of stroke in male physicians. Stroke 1999;30:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, et al. The association of changes in physical activity level and other life-style characteristics with mortality among men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:538–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Coppoolse R, Schols AM, Baarends EM, et al. Interval versus continuous training in patients with severe COPD: a randomized clinical trial. Eur Respir J 1999;14:258–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shayevitz MB, Shayevitz BR. Athletic training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Sports Med 1986;5:471–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Berry MJ, Rejeski WJ, Adair NE, et al. Exercise rehabilitation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage. Am J Respir Crit Care 1999;19:242–8.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stenstrom CH, Minor MA. Evidence for the benefit of aerobic and strengthening exercise in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:428–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van den Ende CH, Breedvelt FC, le Cessie S, et al. Effect of intensive exercise on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised clinical trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:615–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    De Jong Z, Munneke M, Zwinderman AH, et al. Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:2415–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hansen TM, Hansen G, Langgaard AM, et al. Longterm physical training in rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized trial with different training programs and blinded observers. Scand J Rheumatol 1993;22:107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Rheumatoid Arthritis Guidelines. Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: 2002 update. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:328–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Urban & Vogel, Muenchen 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burkhard Weisser
    • 1
    • 3
  • Manuela Preuß
    • 2
  • Hans-Georg Predel
    • 2
  1. 1.Abteilung Sportmedizin, Institut für Sport und SportwissenschaftenChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Kreislaufforschung und SportmedizinDeutsche Sporthochschule KölnKölnGermany
  3. 3.Abteilung Sportmedizin, Institut für Sport und SportwissenschaftenChristian-Albrechts-UniversitätKielGermany

Personalised recommendations