First Line Onyx Embolization in Ruptured Pediatric Arteriovenous Malformations
- 15 Downloads
Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are the main cause of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH). Embolization with Onyx (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) in children with ruptured bAVM has been infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy profile of Onyx embolization as first line endovascular treatment of ruptured pediatric bAVMs.
Children with non-traumatic pICH due to bAVM rupture at a pediatric quaternary care center were prospectively enrolled in a registry and retrospectively analyzed between 2013 and 2018. Clinical and demographic data, treatment modalities and clinical imaging follow-up were retrieved, and detailed procedural data were retrospectively assessed by two investigators. The safety (procedural morbidity and mortality) and efficacy (obliteration and interval rebleeding) were evaluated.
In this study 29 children treated for a bAVM by Onyx embolization were included (14 girls, 48%; median age 11.1 years, interquartile range, IQR 8.1–12.7 years) with a total of 72 endovascular sessions (median of 2 sessions per patient IQR 1–3). The AVMs were deeply located in 23 patients (79%). No systemic complications occurred, and no child experienced embolization-related persistent neurological deficits. Non-clinically relevant complications were observed during five procedures, unrelated to Onyx. After a mean follow-up of 31 months from rupture complete obliteration rates were 100%, 89%, 29%, 14% in bAVM Spetzler Martin grades I, II, III and IV–V, respectively.
It was found that Onyx embolization is safe and represents a good option for an initial treatment approach, in a sequential treatment strategy for pediatric ruptured brain AVMs. Younger age may not be an argument to deny Onyx embolization.
KeywordsInterventional neuroradiology Pediatrics Endovascular treatment Hemorrhagic stroke Intracerebral hemorrhage
We wish to thank the institution Imagine for its support, notably Dr. N. Garcelon for help with Dr Warehouse Software.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors
All authors drafted and approved the final manuscript. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
Compliance with ethical guidelines
Conflict of interest
Q. Alias, G. Boulouis, T. Blauwblomme, S. Benichi, K. Beccaria, F. Gariel, L. Garzelli, P. Meyer, M. Kossorotoff, N. Boddaert, F. Brunelle and O.N. Naggara declare that they have no competing interests.