Long-Term Risk of In-Stent Restenosis and Stent Fracture for Extracranial Vertebral Artery Stenting
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Stenting and angioplasty of the vertebral artery (VA) is used to treat symptomatic stenosis but the long-term outcomes and complications are unclear. This study evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and procedure-related complications in patients who underwent extracranial VA stenting and angioplasty, in particular the risks of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and stent fracture.
This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients suffering from symptomatic extracranial VA stenosis who were treated with balloon-expandable bare metal stents. The clinical and angiographical outcomes were reviewed for procedural complications, recurrent stroke, ISR and stent fracture.
In this study 22 patients (17 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 9.1 years) were included. The median follow-up was 56 months (interquartile range IQR 51.8 months). There were no periprocedural complications. The cumulative ISR risk was 45% with 6 cases detected at 1 year and 3 cases detected at 3 years post operation. The cumulative stent fracture rate at 1 year, 3 years, 5 years and the entire follow-up period were 5%, 15%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. Posterior circulation stroke occurred in 1 patient (4.5%), and 3 patients died of non-cerebrovascular causes during follow-up. Of the patients 2 with ISR and stent fracture required additional treatment.
The long-term ISR and stent fracture risks were high in extracranial VA stenosis treated with balloon-expandable bare metal stents. The risk of stent fracture increased over time during the follow-up period. Further studies should be conducted to clarify the long-term safety and efficacy of extracranial VA stenting.
KeywordsAngioplasty Vertebral artery stenting Stroke In-stent restenosis Stent fracture
Transient ischemic attack
The authors would like to thank Ms Sanna Wong for her valuable expertise in data collection and analysis.
Conflict of interest
M.K.A. Li, A.C. On Tsang, F.C. Pong Tsang, W.S. Ho, R. Lee, G.K. Kit Leung and W.M. Lui declare that they have no competing interests.
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