One Stop Management in Acute Stroke: First Mothership Patient Transported Directly to the Angiography Suite
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KeywordsAcute Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Angiography Suite Large Vessel Occlusion Proximal Internal Carotid Artery
Endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute ischemic stroke is the new standard of treatment in patients with large artery occlusion (LAO) [1, 2]. A short time from symptom onset to reperfusion and especially from hospital admission to reperfusion is crucial for a good clinical outcome . To reduce the time from hospital admission to reperfusion, we combined imaging and treatment in the angiography suite. This case report describes a one stop management approach of depicting acute ischemic signs and excluding intracranial hemorrhage with nonenhanced flat detector computed tomography (FDCT), identifying large vessel occlusion on a multiphase flat detector CT angiography (mpFDCTA) and treating the patient with endovascular thrombectomy, all in the same room.
In this case report, we demonstrate to the best of our knowledge the first mothership stroke patient triaged and treated in the angio-suite with a one stop management. The ability to image and treat stroke patients in the same room without the need for transportation between modalities resulted in a door to groin time of 23 min and a door to reperfusion time of 59 min. Both times are below the recently propagated ideal target intervals of 60 min and 90 min for door to groin and door to reperfusion, respectively . On the contrary, only a low proportion (13%) of patients were treated within the ideal target intervals in a recent meta-analysis of randomized trials .
Regarding the image quality of FDCT, it has been shown that the latest generation of FDCT is of sufficient diagnostic value, compared with multidetector CT, for the detection of intracerebral hemorrhage, albeit with a limited sensitivity on a voxel-based assessment level [6, 7]. The image quality of the latest generation of flat detector equipped angiography suite (Artis Q; Siemens) is not only sufficient to distinguish bleeding, but seems feasible in the detection of supratentorial ischemic changes (Fig. 1a; ). Occluded vessels can be detected with the arterial phase of FDCTA, while the addition of a venous phase allows evaluation of late cerebral collaterals. Collateral status, even when evaluated on single-phase CTA images, is a very good predictor of both patient outcome and treatment effect after EVT . Accordingly, FDCT and mpFDCTA images seem to be sufficient to decide whether a patient with acute stroke is eligible for endovascular thrombectomy; however, all images in this case report were evaluated by an experienced neuroradiologist (>5 years experience with FDCT) and so a larger study is needed to evaluate the feasibility of FDCT in acute stroke diagnostics. Such a study should put special emphasis on the effect of one stop management on intrahospital time and potentially on neurological outcome but also on the safety of FDCT in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke.
In summary, direct transport of patients with symptoms suggestive of LAO to the angiography suite with the combination of imaging and treatment as a one stop management approach seems to be a promising tool to optimize the management of stroke patients. Faster supply of treatment and short time intervals from hospital admission to reperfusion are expected to positively influence clinical outcome.
Compliance with ethical guidelines
Conflict of interest
M. Bähr and J. Liman declare that they have no competing interests. The Institution has a research agreement with Siemens Healthcare. M.-N. Psychogios and M. Knauth have received travel grants from Siemens Healthcare.
All studies on humans described in this article were carried out with the approval of the responsible ethics committee and in accordance with national law and the HELSINKI Declaration from 1975 (in its current revised form). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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