Weed suppression by winter cereals: relative contribution of competition for resources and allelopathy
- 137 Downloads
There is an urgent need for more integrated weed management in commercial cereal production. However, there is gap in the general understanding of crop–weed interactions and the traits contributing to weed suppression by winter cereals. In this research, we measured the above-ground competitive traits crop height, leaf area index and early ground cover and below-ground allelopathic traits by quantification of benzoxazinoid (BX) content in the root zone by HPLC–MS/MS. A partial least squares regression was applied to identify the relative contribution of each trait to explaining the observed variance in weed biomass. The use of three winter cereals, wheat, triticale, and rye enabled us to cover a broad range of weed suppression strategies. For the first time, we were able to demonstrate a positive correlation between BX in plant material and phenoxazinoids in the soil. The highest concentration of BX in the rhizosphere was found at 3–10 cm. Furthermore, differences in crop weed interactions between wheat, rye, and dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds were identified. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between the contribution of any single competitive or allelopathic trait to explain weed biomass. This is valuable information for the establishment of breeding programs for enhanced weed suppression by the cereal crops examined and suggests that an improvement of any of the competitive or allelopathic traits will lead to increased weed suppression. Furthermore, the transfer of traits from rye to wheat via triticale is promising as it may broaden the weed suppressive abilities of wheat.
KeywordsSecale cereale Triticum aestivum Triticosecale Alopecurus myosuroides Tripleurospermum inodorum Benzoxazinoid
Thanks to Sejet Planteforædling, Jens Bagge and Søren Banke providing the replicate experiments in Middelfart. Furthermore, thanks to KWS Scandinavian, Nordic Seed, Ragt and Sejet Planteforædling for seed donations of their respective cultivars. We also greatly acknowledge Eugene J. Driessen, Karen B. Heinager, Christian A.S. Nielsen, Betina A. Bendtsen and Jakob Sørensen for their help with field work and sampling.
- Aslam F, Khaliq A, Matloob A, Tanveer A, Hussain S, Zahir ZA (2017) Allelopathy in agro-ecosystems: a critical review of wheat allelopathy-concepts and implicationsGoogle Scholar
- Barzman M, Barberi P, Birch ANE, Boonekamp P, Dachbrodt-Saaydeh S, Graf B, Hommel B, Jensen JE, Kiss J, Kudsk P, Lamichhane JR, Messean A, Moonen A-C, Ratnadass A, Ricci P, Sarah J-L, Sattin M (2015) Eight principles of integrated pest management. Agron Sustain Dev 35(4):1199–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheng F, Cheng Z (2015) Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy. Front. Plant Sci 6Google Scholar
- Fujii Y, Qasem J (2013) Allelopathy: current trends and future applications. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Heap I (2017) The international survej of herbicide resistant weeds. www.weedscience.org. InternetGoogle Scholar
- Macías FA, Marín D, Oliveros-Bastidas A, Castellano D, Simonet AM, Molinillo JMG (2006) Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of benzoxazinones, their degradation products, and analogues. Phytotoxicity on problematic weeds Avena fatua L. and Lolium rigidum Gaud. J Agric Food Chem 54:1040–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Macias FA, Oliveros-Bastidas A, Marin D, Castellano D, Simonet AM, Molinillo JMG (2005) Degradation studies on benzoxazinoids. Soil degradation dynamics of (2R)-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-Glc) and its degradation products, phytotoxic allelochemicals from gramineae. J Agric Food Chem 53(3):554–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molisch H (1937) Der Einfluss einer Pflanze auf die andere-Allelopathie. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing http://www.r-project.org/Google Scholar
- Sicker D, Frey M, Schulz M, Gierl A (2000) Role of natural benzoxazinones in the survival strategy of plants. Int Rev Cytol A Surv Cell Biol 198:319–346Google Scholar
- Zerner MC, Rebetzke GJ, Gill GS (2016) Genotypic stability of weed competitive ability for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes in multiple environments. Crop Pasture Sci 67(7):695–702Google Scholar