Attraction of the potential biocontrol agent Galerucella placida (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to the volatiles of Polygonum orientale (Polygonaceae) weed leaves
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Galerucella placida Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a potential biocontrol agent of the rice-field weed Polygonum orientale L. (Polygonaceae). The volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles from undamaged and mechanically damaged plants, and from plants 12- and 36-h following continuous feeding of female G. placida adults and 2nd instar larvae were identified and quantified by GC–MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty-four and 21 compounds were identified in volatiles of undamaged and insect feeding plants, respectively; whereas 22 compounds were detected in volatiles of mechanically damaged plants. Decanal and 1-dodecanol were unique to undamaged plants, and linalool was detected in volatiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged plants, but not in volatiles of insect damaged plants. However, the beetles are not attracted by none of these volatile components, when tested individually in Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was predominant. 1-Undecanol was the least amount in undamaged plants, and plants 12-h after feeding by G. placida adults and larvae; whereas 1-tridecanol was the least abundant in plants 36-h after feeding by G. placida adults and larvae, and mechanically damaged plants. The beetles showed significant preference to the whole volatile blends from plants 12-h after feeding by larvae and plants 36-h after feeding by either larvae or adults compared to those of undamaged plants. Further, G. placida responded to individual synthetic compounds, 3-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, nonanal, and geraniol at 7, 1.38, 3.75 and 4.5 µg/25 µL CH2Cl2, respectively, and provide a basis for attraction of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.
KeywordsBiological control Weed Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Volatile organic compound Olfactometer bioassay
We thank Dr. Thomas Schmitt and anonymous reviewer(s) for helpful suggestions of an earlier version of the manuscript. We are thankful to C. L. Staines, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC for identifying the insect, and Prof. Ambarish Mukherjee of this University for identification of the weed. The financial assistance from the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India as a JRF (F1-17.1/2013-14/RGNF-2013-14-SC-WES-38778/(SA-III/Website) to UM is gratefully acknowledged.
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