Chemoecology

, 19:203 | Cite as

Aggregation pheromone of a newly described spruce bark beetle, Ips shangrila Cognato and Sun, from China

  • Qing-He Zhang
  • Li-Wen Song
  • Jian-Hai Ma
  • Fu-Zhong Han
  • Jiang-Hua Sun
Research Paper

Abstract

Volatiles from male hindgut extracts of a newly described spruce bark beetle, Ips shangrila Cognato and Sun, from different attack phases were analyzed by GC–MS/FID with both polar and enantioselective columns. The GC–MS/FID analyses showed that unmated males (Phase 1) or males mated with <3 females (Phases 2–4) produced 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 99%-(+)-ipsdienol as major components, and (−)-cis-verbenol, (−)-trans-verbenol, myrtenol and 2-phenyl ethanol as minor or trace components. The release of these male-produced compounds was confirmed by the analysis on aeration sample of an I. shangrila infested wind-thrown spruce trunk. The quantities of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, cis-verbenol and trans-verbenol from male hindgut extracts were almost unchanged or even slightly increased during gallery development, while ipsdienol decreased dramatically after mating with three females. No obvious Ips-related aggregation pheromone components were detected in the female hindgut extract. A field trapping bioassay in Qinghai, China, showed that the ternary blends containing 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, (−)-cis-verbenol and 97%-(+)-ipsdienol or (±)-ipsdienol, caught significantly more I. shangrila (♂:♀ = 1:2.14) than did the unbaited control. Replacing 97%-(+)-ipsdienol (close to the naturally produced enantiomeric ratio) with (±)-ipsdienol in the ternary blend seemed to reduce trap catches by 50%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Surprisingly, addition of (−)-trans-verbenol (at 0.2 mg/day) to the active ternary blends significantly reduced traps catches to the level not different from the unbaited control. Our results suggest that the two major components, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 99%-(+)-ipsdienol, plus a minor component, (−)-cis-verbenol, produced by fed males, are likely the aggregation pheromone components of I. shangrila.

Keywords

Enantiomeric composition Ipsshangrila Ipsdienol 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol Picea Scolytidae Semiochemical cis-Verbenol 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The technical support of colleagues at the Maixiu Forest Park, Qinghai, China, is highly appreciated. We thank Dr. A. I. Cognato, (Michigan State Univ.) for his expert help on species ID in the field; Dr. Steven J. Seybold (USDA Forest Service, Davis, CA) for the gift of (+)-ipsdienol; Prof. Dr. Wittko Francke for the gift of amitinol; and Dr. J. A. Byers (USDA-ARS) for reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript. This study was supported by a special grant from Foreign Expert Bureau of Qinghai Province.

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing-He Zhang
    • 1
  • Li-Wen Song
    • 2
  • Jian-Hai Ma
    • 3
  • Fu-Zhong Han
    • 4
  • Jiang-Hua Sun
    • 5
  1. 1.Sterling International, IncSpokaneUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Forest ProtectionJilin Provincial Academy of Forestry SciencesChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Qinghai ProvinceXiningPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Maixiu Forest Park of Qinghai ProvinceHuangnanPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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