, 19:203 | Cite as

Aggregation pheromone of a newly described spruce bark beetle, Ips shangrila Cognato and Sun, from China

  • Qing-He Zhang
  • Li-Wen Song
  • Jian-Hai Ma
  • Fu-Zhong Han
  • Jiang-Hua Sun
Research Paper


Volatiles from male hindgut extracts of a newly described spruce bark beetle, Ips shangrila Cognato and Sun, from different attack phases were analyzed by GC–MS/FID with both polar and enantioselective columns. The GC–MS/FID analyses showed that unmated males (Phase 1) or males mated with <3 females (Phases 2–4) produced 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 99%-(+)-ipsdienol as major components, and (−)-cis-verbenol, (−)-trans-verbenol, myrtenol and 2-phenyl ethanol as minor or trace components. The release of these male-produced compounds was confirmed by the analysis on aeration sample of an I. shangrila infested wind-thrown spruce trunk. The quantities of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, cis-verbenol and trans-verbenol from male hindgut extracts were almost unchanged or even slightly increased during gallery development, while ipsdienol decreased dramatically after mating with three females. No obvious Ips-related aggregation pheromone components were detected in the female hindgut extract. A field trapping bioassay in Qinghai, China, showed that the ternary blends containing 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, (−)-cis-verbenol and 97%-(+)-ipsdienol or (±)-ipsdienol, caught significantly more I. shangrila (♂:♀ = 1:2.14) than did the unbaited control. Replacing 97%-(+)-ipsdienol (close to the naturally produced enantiomeric ratio) with (±)-ipsdienol in the ternary blend seemed to reduce trap catches by 50%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Surprisingly, addition of (−)-trans-verbenol (at 0.2 mg/day) to the active ternary blends significantly reduced traps catches to the level not different from the unbaited control. Our results suggest that the two major components, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 99%-(+)-ipsdienol, plus a minor component, (−)-cis-verbenol, produced by fed males, are likely the aggregation pheromone components of I. shangrila.


Enantiomeric composition Ipsshangrila Ipsdienol 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol Picea Scolytidae Semiochemical cis-Verbenol 



The technical support of colleagues at the Maixiu Forest Park, Qinghai, China, is highly appreciated. We thank Dr. A. I. Cognato, (Michigan State Univ.) for his expert help on species ID in the field; Dr. Steven J. Seybold (USDA Forest Service, Davis, CA) for the gift of (+)-ipsdienol; Prof. Dr. Wittko Francke for the gift of amitinol; and Dr. J. A. Byers (USDA-ARS) for reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript. This study was supported by a special grant from Foreign Expert Bureau of Qinghai Province.


  1. Birgersson G, Bergström G (1989) Volatiles released from individual spruce bark beetle entrance holes: quantitative variations during the first week of attack. J Chem Ecol 15:2465–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birgersson G, Schlyter F, Lofqvist J, Bergstrom G (1984) Quantitative variation of pheromone components in the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus from different attack phases. J Chem Ecol 10:1029–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byers JA (1989a) Behavioral mechanisms involved in reducing competition in bark beetles. Holarct Ecol 12:466–476Google Scholar
  4. Byers JA (1989b) Chemical ecology of bark beetles. Experientia 45:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byers JA, Schlyter F, Birgersson G, Francke W (1990) E-Myrcenol in Ips duplicatus: an aggregation pheromone component new for bark beetles. Experientia 46:1209–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cognato AI (2000) Phylogenetic analysis reveals new genus of Ipini bark beetle (Scolytidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cognato AI, Sun J-H (2007) DNA based cladograms augment the discovery of a new Ips species from China (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Cladistics 23:539–551Google Scholar
  8. Cognato AI, Vogler AP (2001) Exploring data interaction and nucleotide alignment in a multiple gene analysis of Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Syst Biol 50:758–780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Day RW, Quinn GP (1989) Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecol Monogr 59:433–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Francke W, Vité JP (1983) Oxygenated terpenes in pheromone systems of bark beetles. Z Angew Entomol 96:146–156Google Scholar
  11. Kohnle U, Vité JP, Erbacher C, Bartels J, Francke W (1988) Aggregation response of European engraver beetles of the genus Ips mediated by terpenoid pheromone. Entomol Exp Appl 49:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kohnle U, Pajares JA, Bartels J, Meyer H, Francke W (1993) Chemical communication in the Europaen pine engraver, Ips mannsfeldi (Wachtl) (Coleoptera Scolytidae). J Appl Entomol 115:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu L, Yan W, Luo Y-Q, Wu J, Li Z-Y, Ma J-H (2007) Spatial niches of bark beetle population in Picea crassifolia natural forests. J Beijing For Univ 29:165–169Google Scholar
  14. Liu L, Wu J, Luo Y-Q, Li Z-Y, Wang G-C, Han F-Z (2008) Morphological and biological investigation of two pioneer Ips bark beetles in natural spruce forests in Qinghai Province, northwest China. For Stud China 10:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Savoie A, Borden JH, Pierce HDJ, Gries R, Gries G (1998) Aggregation pheromone of Pityogenes knechteli and semiochemical-based interactions with three other bark beetles. J Chem Ecol 24:321–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schlyter F, Birgersson G, Byers JA, Löfqvist J, Bergström G (1987) Field response of spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, to aggregation pheromone candidates. J Chem Ecol 13:701–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schlyter F, Birgersson G, Byers JA, Bakke A (1992) The aggregation pheromone of Ips duplicatus, and its role in competitive interactions with I. typographus (Coleoptera:Scolytidae). Chemoecology 3:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schlyter F, Zhang Q-H, Liu G-T, Ji L-Z (2001) A successful case of pheromone mass trapping of the bark beetle Ips duplicatus in a forest island, analysed by 20-year time-series data. Integr Pest Manag Rev 6:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Silverstein RM, Rodin JO, Wood DL (1966) Sex attractants in frass produced by male Ips confusus in ponderosa pine. Science 154:509–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stauffer C, Lakatos F, Hewitt GM (1997) The phylogenetic relationships of seven European Ips (Scolytidae, Ipinae) species. Insect Mol Biol 6:233–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Symonds MRE, Elgar MA (2004) Species overlap, speciation and the evolution of aggregation pheromones in bark beetles. Ecol Lett 7:202–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Warren CE, Wood DL, Seybold SJ, Storer AJ, Bros WE (1996) Olfactory responses of Ips plastographus maritimus Lanier (Coleoptera: Schlytidae) to insect and host-associated volatiles in the laboratory. J Chem Ecol 22:2299–2316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wood DL (1982) The role of pheromones, kairomones and allomones in the host selection and colonization of bark beetles. Annu Rev Entomol 27:411–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xue Y-G, Ma Y-S, Wang X-P (2003) Occurrence and damages of Ips typographus in Huangnan State, Qinghai Province. Sci Technol Qinghai Agric For 3:18–19Google Scholar
  25. Yin, H-F, Huang F-S, Li Z-L (1984) Ips mannsfeldi Wachtl. Economic insect fauna of China (Fasc 29, Coleoptera: Scolytidae): 129Google Scholar
  26. Zhang Q-H, Byers JA, Schlyter F (1992) Optimal attack density in larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae. J Appl Ecol 29:672–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang Q-H, Birgersson G, Schlyter F, Chen G-F (2000a) Pheromone components in the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae, from China: quantitative variation among attack phases and individuals. J Chem Ecol 26:841–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang Q-H, Schlyter F, Birgersson G (2000b) Bark volatiles from nonhost angiosperm trees of spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): chemical and electrophysiological analysis. Chemoecology 10:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang Q-H, Schneidmiller RG, Hoover D, Welshons D, Young K, Margaryan A, Aldrich JR, Chauhan KR (2006) Male-produced pheromone of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). J Chem Ecol 32:2163–2176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Q-H, Schlyter F, Liu G-T, Sheng M-L, Birgersson G (2007) Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Ips duplicatus to aggregation pheromone in Inner Mongolia, China: amitinol as a potential pheromone component. J Chem Ecol 33:1303–1315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang Q-H, Erbilgin N, Seybold SJ (2008) GC-EAD responses to semiochemicals by a guild of eight subcortical beetles associated with Monterey pine trees in coastal California: similarities and disparities across three trophic levels. Chemoecology 18:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang Q-H, Ma J-H, Zhao F-Y, Song L-W, Sun J-H (2009) Aggregation pheromone of the Qinghai spruce bark beetle, Ips nitidus Eggers. J Chem Ecol 35:610–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing-He Zhang
    • 1
  • Li-Wen Song
    • 2
  • Jian-Hai Ma
    • 3
  • Fu-Zhong Han
    • 4
  • Jiang-Hua Sun
    • 5
  1. 1.Sterling International, IncSpokaneUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Forest ProtectionJilin Provincial Academy of Forestry SciencesChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Qinghai ProvinceXiningPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Maixiu Forest Park of Qinghai ProvinceHuangnanPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations