Anthranilic acid: a free amino‐acid pheromone in the black chafer, Holotrichia loochooana loochooana
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Ether extract of the abdominal gland of female black chafers Holotrichia loochooana loochooana (Sawada) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) induced a series of pre-mating behaviors that included short-distance orientation, mounting and abdominal bending toward females in the laboratory. When the extract was chromatographed on a silica gel column, the activity was eluted with 50% ether in hexane and ether fractions. GC-MS analyses revealed that both the active fractions contained anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) as a major compound. When partitioned to basic, acidic and amphoteric fractions, pheromonal activity was observed with the latter two fractions and anthranilic acid was detected in these fractions by HPLC analyses. The amount of anthranilic acid in the female extract was estimated to be ca. 1.3 μg/female. Authentic anthranilic acid induced pre-mating behavior in males of at levels equal to that elicited by the compound in the extract. It also attracted male beetles to the traps in the field.
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