Division of labour and social insect colony performance in relation to task and mating number under two alternative response threshold models
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Some social insects exhibit an exceptionally high degree of polyandry. Alternative hypotheses exist to explain the benefits of multiple mating through enhanced colony performance. This study critically extends theoretical analyses of the hypothesis that enhanced division of labour confers fitness benefits to the queen that are sufficient to explain the observed mating frequencies of social insects. The effects of widely varying numbers of tasks and matings were systematically investigated in two alternative computer simulation models. One model was based on tasks that have to be performed to maintain an optimal trait value, while the other model was based on tasks that only have to be sufficiently performed to exceed a minimum trait value to confer full fitness returns. Both model versions were evaluated assuming a broad and a narrow response threshold distribution. The results consistently suggest a beneficial effect of multiple mating on colony performance, albeit with quickly diminishing returns. An increasing number of tasks decreased performance of colonies with few patrilines but not of more genetically diverse colonies. Instead, a performance maximum was found for intermediate task numbers. The results from the two model versions and two response threshold distributions did not fundamentally differ, suggesting that the type of tasks and the breadth of response thresholds do not affect the benefit of multiple mating. In general, our results corroborate previous models that have evaluated simpler task/patriline scenarios. Furthermore, selection for an intermediate number of tasks is indicated that could constrain the degree of division of labour. We conclude that enhanced division of labour may have favoured the evolution of multiple mating but is insufficient to explain the extreme mating numbers observed in some social insects, even in complex task scenarios.
KeywordsMultiple mating Social evolution Division of labour Genetic variability Colony efficiency Computer simulations
We would like to thank all members of the UNCG Math-Bio group for their comments, suggestions, and lively discussion. This study was improved by the comments of two anonymous reviewers of an earlier version of this manuscript but potential errors remain our own. Financial support was provided by NSF (#0634182 and #0615502). The work performed adheres to all applicable ethical standards and government regulations.
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