Advertisement

International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 64, Issue 8, pp 1203–1214 | Cite as

Advantages and disadvantages across the life course and health status in old age among women in Chile

  • Ignacio Madero-Cabib
  • Ariel AzarEmail author
  • Pedro Pérez-CruzEmail author
Original article

Abstract

Objectives

Based on a life course perspective, we assessed the association between three types of social advantages and disadvantages accumulated across different life stages, with the number of self-reported chronic conditions among women aged 60 + in Chile, a Latin-American country with almost no reports on this matter.

Methods

We used a population-representative longitudinal survey (Chile’s Social Protection Survey) with information about childhood conditions, economic mobility across life, educational attainment, late adulthood labor-force trajectories, and later-life health, of 2627 women aged 60+. We then used sequence and Poisson regression analyses to assess the effect of life course (dis)advantages over the number of chronic conditions in old age.

Results

Growing up in a poor household and experiencing downward economic mobility (especially among those with a non-poor childhood) increases the predicted number of chronic conditions in old age. By contrast, having a continuous and formal labor-force trajectory in late adulthood and higher educational attainment is associated with fewer chronic conditions later in life.

Conclusions

Policy measures that seek to foster health prevention and health care among older women should consider how multiple exposures to social advantages/disadvantages during earlier stages of the life course could affect health in late life.

Keywords

Life course Old age Chronic conditions Women Advantages and disadvantages Longitudinal methods Chile 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by CONICYT/FONDECYT/INICIACION/N°11180360, CONICYT/FONDAP/Nº15130009, and Millenium Science Initiative of the Ministry of Economy Development and Tourism, Chile, Grant “Millennium Nucleus for the Study of the Life Course and Vulnerability.”

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

We, the authors of this manuscript, certify that we do not have any actual or potential conflict on ethical standards, financial and non-financial interests and compensations, ethical approvals, personal relationships with people or organizations, which could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, our work.

Supplementary material

38_2019_1300_MOESM1_ESM.docx (744 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 744 kb)

References

  1. Abbott A (1995) Sequence analysis: new methods for old ideas. Am J Sociol 21:93–113Google Scholar
  2. Alvarado BE, Zunzunegui MV, Béland F, Bamvita JM (2008) Life course social and health conditions linked to frailty in Latin American older men and women. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 63(12):1399–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand P, Esposito L, Villaseñor A (2018) Depression and economic status: evidence for non-linear patterns in women from Mexico. J Ment Health 27:529–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelini V, Howdon DD, Mierau JO (2018) Childhood socioeconomic status and late-adulthood mental health: results from the Survey on Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 74:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartley M, Plewis I (2007) Increasing social mobility: an effective policy to reduce health inequalities. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 170:469–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brennan DS, Spencer AJ (2014) Health-related quality of life and income-related social mobility in young adults. Health Qual Life Outcomes 12:52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen M, Zhu H, Du Y, Yang G (2018) How does the social environment during life course embody in and influence the development of cancer? Int J Public Health 63:811–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheval B, Boisgontier M et al (2018) Association of early-and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age. Age Ageing 47:398–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corna L (2013) A life course perspective on socioeconomic inequalities in health: a critical review of conceptual frameworks. Adv Life Course Res 18:150–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cunningham SA, Patel SA, Beckles GL, Geiss LS, Mehta N, Xie H, Imperatore G (2018) County-level contextual factors associated with diabetes incidence in the United States. Ann Epidemiol 28:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dannefer D (2003) Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: crossfertilizing age and social science theory. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 58:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demakakos P, Chrousos GP, Biddulph JP (2018) Childhood experiences of parenting and cancer risk at older ages: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Int J Public Health 63:823–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Díaz-Toro F, Madero-Cabib I, Calvo E, Staudinger U (2018) Heartbreaking careers in old age: retirement sequences as a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Circulation 137:A020Google Scholar
  14. Dorner TE, Stein KV (2013) Prevalence and status quo of osteoarthritis in Austria, Analysis of epidemiological and social determinants of health in a representative cross-sectional survey. Wien Med Wochenschr 163:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elzinga CH (2007) Sequence analysis: metric representations of categorical time series. Manuscript, Department of Social Science Research Methods, Vrije Universiteit, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferraro KF, Shippee TP, Shafer MH (2009) Cumulative inequality theory for research on aging and the life course. In: Bengston VL, Gans D, Pulney NM, Silverstein M (eds) Handbook of theories of aging. Springer, New York, pp 413–433Google Scholar
  17. Frenz P, Kaufman JS, Nazzal C, Cavada G, Cerecera F, Silva N (2017) Mediation of the effect of childhood socioeconomic position by educational attainment on adult chronic disease in Chile. Int J Public Health 62:1007–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gabadinho A, Ritschard G, Müller N, Studer M (2011) Analyzing and visualizing state sequences in R with TraMineR. J Stat Softw 40:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guerra RO, Alvarado BE, Zunzunegui MV (2008) Life course, gender and ethnic inequalities in functional disability in a Brazilian urban elderly population. Aging Clin Exp Res 20(1):53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Havranek EP, Mujahid MS et al (2015) Social determinants of risk and outcomes for cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 132:873–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoebel J, Kroll LE, Fiebig J, Lampert T, Katalinic A, Barnes B, Kraywinkel K (2018) Socioeconomic inequalities in total and site-specific cancer incidence in Germany: a population-based registry study. Front Oncol 8:402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaufman L, Rousseeuw P (1990) Finding groups in data: an introduction to cluster analysis. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolahi AA, Moghisi A, Ekhtiari YS (2018) Socio-demographic determinants of obesity indexes in Iran: findings from a nationwide STEPS survey. Health Promot Perspect 8:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuh D, Ben-Shlomo Y, Lynch J, Hallqvist J, Power C (2003) Life course epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:778–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Landös A, von Arx M et al (2018) Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and disability trajectories in older men and women: a European cohort study. Eur J Public Health 29:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levy R, Widmer ED (eds) (2013) Gendered life courses between standardization and individualization. LIT Verlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  27. Lucumi DI, Schulz AJ, Roux AVD, Grogan-Kaylor A (2017) Income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia: a multilevel analysis. Cad Saude Publ 33:e00172316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Madero-Cabib I, Undurraga R, Valenzuela C (2019a) How have women’s employment patterns during young adulthood changed in Chile? A cohort study. Longit Life Course Stud 10(3): 375–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Madero-Cabib I, Corna L, Baumann I (2019b) Aging in different welfare contexts: a comparative perspective on later-life employment and health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbz037 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McDaniel JT, Nuhu K, Ruiz J, Alorbi G (2019) Social determinants of cancer incidence and mortality around the world: an ecological study. Glob Health Promot 26(1):41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McNamara CL, Balaj M, Thomson KH, Eikemo TA, Solheim EF, Bambra C (2017) The socioeconomic distribution of non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health. Eur J Public Health 27:22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Monteverde M, Noronha K, Palloni A (2009) Effect of early conditions on disability among the elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean. Popul Stud 63(1):21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pudrovska T, Anikputa B (2014) Early-life socioeconomic status and mortality in later life: an integration of four life-course mechanisms. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 69:451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
  35. Reiss F (2013) Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 90:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB (1983) The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika 70:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sapelli C (2004) Risk segmentation and equity in the Chilean mandatory health insurance system. Soc Sci Med 58:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shuey KM, Willson AE (2014) Economic hardship in childhood and adult health trajectories: an alternative approach to investigating life-course processes. Adv Life Course Res 22:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh GK, Daus GP et al (2017) Social determinants of health in the United States: addressing major health inequality trends for the nation 1935–2016. Int J MCH AIDS 6:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Solar O, Irwin A (2010) A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Social determinants of health discussion paper 2 (Policy and Practice). WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  41. Surachman A, Wardecker B, Chow SM, Almeida D (2018) Life course socioeconomic status daily stressors and daily well-being: examining chain of risk models. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 74:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. van der Linden BW, Courvoisier DS et al. (2018) Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study. Int J Public Health 63(7):799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ward J (1963) Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. J Am Stat Assoc 58:236–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Willson AE, Shuey KM (2016) Life course pathways of economic hardship and mobility and midlife trajectories of health. J Health Soc Behav 57:407–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. World Health Organization [WHO] (2017) Health in the Americas. https://www.paho.org/salud-en-las-americas-2017/?p=2518. Accessed 09 Feb 2019

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Sociología & Departamento de Salud PúblicaPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Millennium Nucleus for the Study of the Life Course and Vulnerability (MLIV)SantiagoChile
  3. 3.Department of SociologyThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Departamento de Medicina Interna, Facultad de MedicinaPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiago CentroChile

Personalised recommendations