Mammographic densities of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women living in Australia’s Northern Territory
- 48 Downloads
To compare the mammographic densities and other characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women screened in Australia.
Population screening programme data of Aboriginal (n = 857) and non-Aboriginal women (n = 3236) were used. Mann–Whitney U test compared ages at screening and Chi-square tests compared personal and clinical information. Logistic regression analysis was used for density groupings. OR and 95% CI were calculated for multivariate association for density.
Mammographic density was lower amongst Aboriginal women (P < 0.001). For non-Aboriginal women, higher density was associated with younger age (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.1–2.8), recall to assessment (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.0), family history of breast cancer (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6), English-speaking background (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6), and residence in remote areas (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.4). For Aboriginal women, density was associated with younger age (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0–3.5; P < 0.001), and recall to assessment (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.9; P < 0.05).
Significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women were found. There were more significant associations for dense breasts for non-Aboriginal women than for Aboriginal women.
KeywordsAboriginal Australians Mammographic density Breast cancer
This study was undertaken under the auspices of the Centre of Research Excellence in Discovering Indigenous Strategies to improve Cancer Outcomes Via Engagement, Research Translation and Training (DISCOVER-TT CRE, funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council #1041111) and the Strategic Research Partnership to improve Cancer control for Indigenous Australians (STREP Ca-CIndA, funded through Cancer Council NSW (SRP 13-01) with supplementary funding from Cancer Council WA). We also acknowledge the ongoing support of the Lowitja Institute, Australia’s National Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies. Gail Garvey is supported by an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (#1105399). Kriscia Tapia is a DISCOVER-TT CRE scholar. Kriscia Tapia thanks Professor Jenny Peat whose statistical expertise was invaluable during the analysis and interpretation of the data. She also thanks Kim Coulter, Guillermo Enciso, and Christine Wright for their assistance with data collection, and Phuong Dung Trieu and Ziba Gandomkar for their advice on the methodology of this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011a) 1270.0.55.005—Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): volume 5—Remoteness structure, 2011, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011b) 2075.0—Census of population and housing: counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2011. ABS, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) 4727.0.55.001—Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey: first results, Australia, 2012–2013. ABS, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012) Breast cancer in Australia: an overview. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2015a) BreastScreen Australia monitoring report 2012–2013. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2015b) The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Cancer Australia (2013) Cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia: an overview. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Cancer Australia (2012) Study of breast cancer screening characteristics and breast cancer survival in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women of Australia. Cancer Australia, Surry HillsGoogle Scholar
- Chong A, Roder D (2010) Exploring differences in survival from cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: implications for health service delivery and research. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 11:953–961Google Scholar
- Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2002) Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet 360:187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)09454-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis SE, Knight S, White V, Claridge C, Davis B, Bell R (2003) Climacteric symptoms among Indigenous Australian women and a model for the use of culturally relevant art in health promotion. Menopause 10:345. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.gme.0000054819.03576.43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy AM, Keller BM, Pantalone LM, Hsieh M-K, Synnestvedt M, Conant EF, Armstrong K, Kontos D (2016) Racial differences in quantitative measures of area and volumetric breast density. J Natl Cancer Inst 108(10). https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw104
- O’Dea K (1992) Diabetes in Australian Aborigines: impact of the western diet and life style. J Intern Med 232:103–117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1992.tb00559.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peat J, Barton B (2014) Medical statistics: a guide to SPSS, data analysis and critical appraisal, 2nd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- Roubidoux MA, Kaur JS, Griffith KA, Stillwater B, Novotny P, Sloan J (2003) Relationship of mammographic parenchymal patterns to breast cancer risk factors and smoking in Alaska Native women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:1081–1086Google Scholar
- Rowley KG, Daniel M, Skinner K, Skinner M, White GA, O’Dea K (2000) Effectiveness of a community-directed ‘healthy lifestyle’ program in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Aust N Z J Public Health 24:136–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842x.2000.tb00133.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith RM, Smith PA, McKinnon M, Gracey M (2000) Birthweights and growth of infants in five Aboriginal communities. Aust N Z J Public Health 24:124–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842X.2000.tb00132.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The Royal Australian, New Zealand College of Radiologists (2016) Position statement on breast density. RANZCR, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Ursin G et al (2003) Mammographic density and breast cancer in three ethnic groups. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:332–338Google Scholar
- van der Waal D, den Heeten GJ, Pijnappel RM, Schuur KH, Timmers JM, Verbeek AL, Broeders MJ (2015) Comparing visually assessed BI-RADS breast density and automated volumetric breast density software: a cross-sectional study in a breast cancer screening setting. PLoS ONE 10:e0136667. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136667 CrossRefGoogle Scholar