Does community deprivation determine longevity after the age of 75? A cross-national analysis
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Analyze the association between socioeconomic deprivation and old-age survival in Europe, and investigate whether it varies by country and gender.
Our study incorporated five countries (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, and England). A 10-year survival rate expressing the proportion of population aged 75–84 years who reached 85–94 years old was calculated at area-level for 2001–11. To estimate associations, we used Bayesian spatial models and a transnational measure of deprivation. Attributable/prevention fractions were calculated.
Overall, there was a significant association between deprivation and survival in both genders. In England that association was stronger, following a dose–response relation. Although lesser in magnitude, significant associations were observed in Spain and Italy, whereas in France and Portugal these were even weaker. The elimination of socioeconomic differences between areas would increase survival by 7.1%, and even a small reduction in socioeconomic differences would lead to a 1.6% increase.
Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with survival among older adults at ecological-level, although with varying magnitude across countries. Reasons for such cross-country differences should be sought. Our results emphasize the importance of reducing socioeconomic differences between areas.
KeywordsAgeing Elderly Health inequalities Social factors Europe Longevity Mortality
This work was supported by Portuguese funds through FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of project UID/BIM/04293/2013. AIR and MFP would also like to thank to FC—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia for the Grants PTDC/SAU-EPI/113424/2009 and SFRH/BD/82529/2011. MSC was supported by CNpQ (309692/2013-0) and FAPERJ (E-26/203.557/2014).We are very grateful to the National Statistic Offices for sending us the required data and to all the members of the European Deprivation Index (EDI) team. The authors would like to thank Rogério Ribeiro for the help in preparing visual supports, Alexandra Guttentag for her work as language editor, and the anonymous reviewers for their highly valuable corrections and suggestions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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