International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 62, Issue 8, pp 889–897 | Cite as

Partnering and parenting transitions associate with changing smoking status: a cohort study in young Australians

  • Jing Tian
  • Seana Gall
  • George Patton
  • Terry Dwyer
  • Alison VennEmail author
Original Article



To examine the effects of partnering and parenting transitions on smoking continuity in young adults.


A prospective cohort study was conducted involving 1084 young smokers and former smokers who completed questionnaires at baseline (2004–2006, aged 26–36 years) and 5 years later.


233/570 (40.9%) smokers quit and 58/514 (11.3%) former smokers resumed smoking during follow-up. For partnering transitions, compared with remaining not partnered, the likelihood of quitting was higher among men who became (RR 2.84 95% CI 1.62, 4.98) or stayed (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18, 3.80) partnered and women who became partnered (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03, 2.18). People who became (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03, 0.58) or stayed (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27, 0.95) partnered had a lower risk of resuming smoking than their continuously not partnered peers. For parenting transitions, having a first child born increased women’s probability of quitting smoking relative to remaining childless (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.30, 2.33), while having additional children did not.


The benefits of partnering were greater for men than women and transition into parenthood was of greater benefit to women.


Marital status Parenthood Smoking cessation Longitudinal studies 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


This study was supported by Grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC 211316 and 544923), the National Heart Foundation (GOOH0578), the Tasmanian Community Fund and Veolia Environmental Services. We gratefully acknowledge the study sponsors Sanitarium, ASICS and Target. Alison Venn was supported by an NHMRC Research Fellowship (APP1008299), and Seana Gall by a Heart Foundation Public Health Post-Doctoral Fellowship (PH 11H6047) and Future Leader Fellowship (100448).

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

38_2017_984_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (289 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 289 kb)


  1. Aiken LS, West SG, Reno RR (1991) Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) Marriages and divorces, Australia, 2013. Australian Bureau of Statistics Accessed 1 July 2016
  3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014) National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Accessed 1 July 2016
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2015) Australia’s mothers and babies 2013—in brief. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Accessed 1 July 2016
  5. Backett KC, Davison C (1995) Lifecourse and lifestyle: the social and cultural location of health behaviours. Soc Sci Med 40:629–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks E, Joshy G, Weber MF et al (2015) Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality in a large Australian cohort study: findings from a mature epidemic with current low smoking prevalence. BMC Med 13:38. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0281-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Cengelli S, O’Loughlin J, Lauzon B, Cornuz J (2012) A systematic review of longitudinal population-based studies on the predictors of smoking cessation in adolescent and young adult smokers. Tob Control 21:355–362. doi: 10.1136/tc.2011.044149 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen PH, White HR, Pandina RJ (2001) Predictors of smoking cessation from adolescence into young adulthood. Addict Behav 26:517–529CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. David GL, Koh WP, Lee HP, Yu MC, London SJ (2005) Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Thorax 60:1052–1058. doi: 10.1136/thx.2005.042960 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Diemert LM, Bondy SJ, Brown KS, Manske S (2013) Young adult smoking cessation: predictors of quit attempts and abstinence. Am J Public Health 103:449–453. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300878 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Eng PM, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice G, Rimm EB (2005) Effects of marital transitions on changes in dietary and other health behaviours in US male health professionals. J Epidemiol Community Health 59:56–62. doi: 10.1136/jech.2004.020073 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Gall SL, Jose K, Smith K, Dwyer T, Venn A (2009) The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study: a profile of a cohort study to examine the childhood influences on adult cardiovascular health. Australas Epidemiol 16:35Google Scholar
  13. Gall S, Huynh QL, Magnussen CG et al (2014) Exposure to parental smoking in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: evidence from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Eur Heart J 35:2484–2491. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu049 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Giglia RC, Binns CW, Alfonso HS (2006) Which women stop smoking during pregnancy and the effect on breastfeeding duration. BMC Public Health 6:195. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-195 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Gill SC, Butterworth P, Rodgers B, Mackinnon A (2007) Validity of the mental health component scale of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (MCS-12) as measure of common mental disorders in the general population. Psychiatry Res 152:63–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorber SC, Schofield-Hurwitz S, Hardt J, Levasseur G, Tremblay M (2009) The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status. Nicotine Tob Res 11:12–24. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntn010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graham H, Francis B, Inskip HM, Harman J, Team SWSS (2006) Socioeconomic life course influences on women’s smoking status in early adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health 60:228–233. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.039784 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Henderson S, Duncan-Jones P, McAuley H, Ritchie K (1978) The patient’s primary group. Br J Psychiatry 132:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hughes JR, Keely J, Naud S (2004) Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers. Addiction 99:29–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee S, Cho E, Grodstein F, Kawachi I, Hu FB, Colditz GA (2005) Effects of marital transitions on changes in dietary and other health behaviours in US women. Int J Epidemiol 34:69–78. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyh258dyh258 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu Y, Tong S, Oldenburg B (2001) Determinants of smoking and cessation during and after pregnancy. Health Promot Int 16:355–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McDermott L, Dobson A, Russell A (2004) Changes in smoking behaviour among young women over life stage transitions. Aust N Z J Public Health 28:330–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McDermott L, Dobson A, Owen N (2009) Determinants of continuity and change over 10 years in young women’s smoking. Addiction 104:478–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02452.xADD2452 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mendel JR, Berg CJ, Windle RC, Windle M (2012) Predicting young adulthood smoking among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Health Behav 36:542–554. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.36.4.11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Pampel FC, Mollborn S, Lawrence EM (2014) Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use. Soc Sci Res 43:45–59. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.08.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Patnode CD, Henderson JT, Thompson JH, Senger CA, Fortmann SP, Whitlock EP (2015) Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant women: a review of reviews for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 163:608–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Raymore LA, Barber BL, Eccles JS (2001) Leaving home, attending college, partnership and parenthood: the role of life transition events in leisure pattern stability from adolescence to young adulthood. J Youth Adolesc 30:197–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shapiro A, Keyes CLM (2008) Marital status and social well-being: are the married always better off? Soc Indic Res 88:329–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Siahpush M, Shaikh RA, Tibbits M, Huang TT, Singh GK (2013) The association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse: prospective results from an Australian national study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:2906–2919. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10072906 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Tucker JS, Ellickson PL, Klein DJ (2002) Smoking cessation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Nicotine Tob Res 4:321–332. doi: 10.1080/14622200210142698 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tucker JS, Ellickson PL, Orlando M, Klein DJ (2005) Predictors of attempted quitting and cessation among young adult smokers. Prev Med 41:554–561. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.12.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Umberson D (1987) Family status and health behaviors: social control as a dimension of social integration. J Health Soc Behav 28:306–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Umberson D (1992) Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior. Soc Sci Med 34:907–917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Umberson D, Chen MD, House JS, Hopkins K, Slaten E (1996) The effect of social relationships on psychological well-being: are men and women really so different? Am Sociol Rev 61:837–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012) Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health Accessed 1 July 2016
  36. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014) The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress. A report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Accessed 1 July 2016
  37. Vangeli E, Stapleton J, Smit ES, Borland R, West R (2011) Predictors of attempts to stop smoking and their success in adult general population samples: a systematic review. Addiction 106:2110–2121. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03565.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Waldron I, Lye D (1989) Family roles and smoking. Am J Prev Med 5:136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Walsh PM, Carrillo P, Flores G, Masuet C, Morchon S, Ramon JM (2007) Effects of partner smoking status and gender on long term abstinence rates of patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Addict Behav 32:128–136. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wheaton B (1990) Life transitions, role histories, and mental health. Am Sociol Rev 55:209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Tian
    • 1
  • Seana Gall
    • 1
  • George Patton
    • 2
  • Terry Dwyer
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alison Venn
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Menzies Institute for Medical ResearchUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Murdoch Childrens Research InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.The George Institute for Global HealthUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations