Parks and green areas and the risk for depression and suicidal indicators
- 486 Downloads
There is increasing evidence that parks and green areas have beneficial effects on mental health; however, most studies have been limited to a certain or small geographic area. This study investigated whether parks and green areas were associated with the risk for depression or suicidal indicators among adults.
We used the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey data (n = 169,029). Residential geographical codes were used to determine the amount of parks and green areas in each administrative district.
The median amount of parks and green areas was 19.73 m2 per capita. Compared with adults living the highest amount of parks and green areas (1st quartile), those living in regions with the lowest amount of parks and green areas (4th quartile) had 16–27% greater odds for depression and suicidal indicators, after adjusting for all potential variables. People without moderate physical activity had higher odds for self-reported depression and suicidal ideation than those with moderate physical activity.
We observed protective associations between parks and green areas and depression and suicidal indicators. In addition, moderate physical activity may help to lower the risk for depression and suicidal indicators.
KeywordsNatural environment Community Mental health Psychological illness
This study was funded by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Grant Numbers 2015R1A1A3A04000923, 2015R1D1A1A01057619, 2015R1D1A1A01059048).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
KB Min has received research grants from by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. KB Min declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
This study used the public anonymous data and was exempted from obtaining informed consent from ethics review.
- Cho MJ, Kim KH (1993) Diagnostic validity of the CES-D (Korean version) in the assessment of DSM-III-R major depression. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 32:381–399Google Scholar
- Chou KL, Liang K, Sareen J (2011) The association between social isolation and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders: wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 72(11):1468–1476. doi: 10.4088/JCP.10m06019gry CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015) Korea Community Health Survey. https://chs.cdc.go.kr/chs/index.do. Accessed 31 March 2016
- Korean Statistical Information Service (2009) http://kosis.kr/eng/. Accessed 31 March 2016
- Sugiyama T, Leslie E, Giles-Corti B, Owen N (2008) Associations of neighbourhood greenness with physical and mental health: do walking, social coherence and local social interaction explain the relationships? J Epidemiol Commun. Health (London) 62(5):e9Google Scholar
- Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, Depledge MH (2011) Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol 45(5):1761–1772. doi: 10.1021/es102947t CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (2009) Mental health, resilience and inequalities. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/100821/E92227.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2016
- World Health Organization (2013) Investing in mental health: evidence for action. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/87232/1/9789241564618_eng.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2016