How do area-level socioeconomic status and gender norms affect partner violence against women? Evidence from Tanzania
- 820 Downloads
To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania.
We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women’s risk of current partner violence.
Prevalence of current partner violence was 36.1 %; however, variation in prevalence exists across communities. Twenty-nine percent of the variation in the logodds of partner violence is due to community-level influences. When adjusting for individual-level characteristics, this variation falls to 10 % and falls further to 8 % when adjusting for additional community-level factors. Higher levels of women’s acceptance towards wife beating, male unemployment, and years of schooling among men were associated with higher risk of partner violence; however, higher levels of women in paid work were associated with lower risk.
Area-level poverty and inequitable gender norms were associated with higher risk of partner violence. Empowerment strategies along with addressing social attitudes are likely to achieve reductions in rates of partner violence against women in Tanzania and in other similar low-income country settings.
KeywordsPartner violence against women Tanzania Multilevel model Poverty Gender norms
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
This study analyses secondary data gathered as part of the DHS programme. The DHS ethical review states “Procedures and questionnaires for standard DHS surveys have been reviewed and approved by the ICF International Institutional Review Board (IRB). Additionally, country-specific DHS survey protocols are reviewed by the ICF IRB and typically by an IRB in the host country. The ICF International IRB ensures that the survey complies with the US Department of Health and Human Services regulations for the protection of human subjects (45 CFR 46), while the host country IRB ensures that the survey complies with laws and norms of the nation.”
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the original study. http://dhsprogram.com/What-We-Do/Protecting-the-Privacy-of-DHS-Survey-Respondents.cfm.
- Ackerson LK, Subramanian SV (2008) State gender inequality, socioeconomic status and intimate partner violence (IPV) in India: a multilevel analysis. Aust J Soc Issues 43(1):81–102Google Scholar
- Ellsberg M, Jansen HA, Heise L, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C (2008) Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet 371(9619):1165–1172. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60522-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heise L (2011) What works to prevent partner violence? An evidence overview, UK Department for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
- Kiss L, Schraiber LB, Heise L, Zimmerman C, Gouveia N, Watts C (2012) Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: does living in more deprived neighbourhoods increase women’s risk of intimate partner violence? Soc Sci Med 74(8):1172–1179. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) [Tanzania] and ICF Macro (2011) Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Dar es Salaam. Tanzania, NBS and ICF Macro. http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR243/FR243%5B24June2011%5D.pdf. Accessed 29 Aug 2011
- Rabe-Hesketh S, Skrondal A (2008) Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata. Stata Press, TexasGoogle Scholar
- Shaw C, McKay H (1942) Jevenille delinquency and urban areas. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Uthman OA, Moradi T, Lawako S (2009) The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects. Soc Sci Med 68(10):1801–1809. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.02.045 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vyas S (2013) Estimating the association between women’s earnings and partner violence: evidence from the 2008–09 Tanzania National Panel Survey. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US2014605867. Accessed 23 Nov 2013