Energy drink consumption, health complaints and late bedtime among young adolescents
- 912 Downloads
Energy drinks contain large amounts of caffeine. Their effects on adolescent well-being are poorly known. We examined the relationship of energy drink consumption with health complaints and late bedtime among 13-year-olds.
A classroom survey was conducted on all 7th graders in the Helsinki metropolitan region, Finland (73 % responded; n = 9446). Logistic regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used.
The prevalence of health complaints increased as energy drink consumption increased from non-consumers to several times/day. Late bedtime (≥11 PM) increased correspondingly. Those consuming energy drinks several times/day exhibited increased odds of experiencing daily health complaints compared with non-consumers: headache OR (adjusted) = 4.6 (2.8–7.7), sleeping problems OR = 3.6 (2.2–5.8), irritation OR = 4.1 (2.7–6.1), tiredness/fatigue OR = 3.7 (2.4–5.7), and late bedtime OR = 7.8 (5.7–10.9). In SEM, energy drink consumption had a direct effect on health complaints and late bedtime and an indirect effect on health complaints via late bedtime.
Energy drinks, late bedtime, and health complaints form a behavior pattern that is worth considering in schools, home and clinical settings when adolescents complain about headaches, problems with sleeping and corresponding symptoms.
KeywordsEnergy drinks Adolescents Caffeine Health complaints Late bedtime
The data collection was financially supported by the Academy of Finland (Skidi-Kids Research Program) and analyses by the Competitive Research Funding of the Tampere University Hospital (Grant 9N063). We thank MSc Liudmila Lipiäinen for consultation regarding SEM modeling and BA Lasse Pere for preparing the data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Currie C, Zanotti C, Morgan A et al (2012) Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Key findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. WHO, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
- Huhtinen H, Rimpelä A (2013) Nuorison energiajuomien käyttö ja kofeiiniin liittyvät oireet. [Energy drink consumption and caffeine-induced health complaints in adolescents]. English abstract. Suomen Lääkärilehti 68:2451–2455Google Scholar
- Muthén LK, Muthén BO (2012) Mplus User's Guide, 7th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, p 1998–2012Google Scholar
- Simon M, Mosher J (2007) Alcohol, energy drinks, and youth: a dangerous mix. Marin Institute, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
- Zucconi S, Volpato C, Adinolfi F, Gandini E, Gentile E, Loi A, Fioriti L (2013) Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks. Supporting Publications Report No: EN-394. European food safety authorityGoogle Scholar