Prevalence, diagnosis, and management of diabetes mellitus among older Chinese: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
- 1k Downloads
To estimate prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), success in diagnosing, and methods of diabetes management in China.
China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a representative survey of the Chinese population at least 45 years old, is used to estimate diabetes and prediabetes prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment and their associations with residence, socioe-conomic, and demographic factors.
Almost 60 % of middle-aged and elderly Chinese have prediabetes or diabetes in 2011–2012. DM prevalence increases with age, but the oldest group is least likely to be diagnosed. Prevalence is higher with higher body mass index, fasting cholesterol, and larger waist circumference. Higher prevalence is found in urban areas among residents with urban registration status (the Chinese administrative registration system or hukou), especially in coastal regions. Better rates of diagnosis, management, and education regarding diabetes are strongly associated with urban hukou, living in coastal areas, and in families with higher per capita expenditures, the appropriate economic resources measure in China.
Diagnosis and management of diabetes is highly differential within China but recent efforts to improve health systems are succeeding in reducing undiagnosed disease. Current high prevalence of prediabetes suggests a more intensive effort is required in the future.
KeywordsDiabetes mellitus China Management SES Undiagnosis
Compliance with ethical standards
This research was supported by the BSR division of the National Institute on Aging (1R01AG037031-03S, R03AG049144 and R37AG025529), the Management Science Division of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71130002 and 71450001), Development Research Group-Human Development and Public Services Team of the World Bank (7172961), China Medical Board and Peking University.
- International Diabetes Federation. https://www.idf.org/BRIDGES/map/china. Accessed 29 Mar 2015
- Jia WP, Pang C, Chen L et al (2007) Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in a Chinese adult population: the Shanghai Diabetes Studies, a cross-sectional 3 year follow-up study in Shanghai urban communities. Diabetologia 50:286–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levesque J-F, Mukherjee S, Grimard D, Boivin A, Mishra S (2013) Measuring the prevalence of chronic diseases using population surveys by pooling self-reported symptoms, diagnosis and treatments: results from the World Health Survey of 2003 for South Asia. Int J Public Health 58:435–447CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wooldridge J (2010) Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data, 2nd edn. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Zhao Y, Strauss J, Yang G et al (2013) China health and retirement longitudinal study—2011–2012 national baseline user’s guide. Peking University, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Zhao Y, Crimmins E, Hu P, Hu Y, Ge T, Kim J-K, Strauss J, Yang G, Yin X, Wang Y (2014b) China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study—2011–2012 National baseline blood data user’s guide, School of National Development, Peking UniversityGoogle Scholar