Advertisement

International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 199–206 | Cite as

Exploring traditional and cyberbullying among Irish adolescents

  • Mary CallaghanEmail author
  • Colette Kelly
  • Michal Molcho
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

This study aimed to explore the associations of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation with self-reported health and life satisfaction, and to examine whether involvement in risk behaviours contributes to these health outcomes.

Methods

We asked questions on involvement in traditional and cyberbullying, risk behaviours, self-reported health and life satisfaction to school children. In total, 318 students aged from 15 to 18 years old in 8 post-primary schools in Ireland completed the survey.

Results

Children who were victims of bullying were more likely to report poor health, low life satisfaction and engaging in risky behaviours. Although not statistically significant, we found that cyber victimisation was positively associated with increased reporting of poor health and low life satisfaction.

Conclusion

Traditional bullying is the most common type of bullying among school children in Ireland, and overall, seems to have a stronger association with poor health. However, a sizable proportion of children are victims of cyberbullying or of both cyberbullying and traditional bullying. It is, therefore, important to acknowledge, identify and address all types of bullying to improve the health outcomes of children.

Keywords

Health Well-being Cyberbullying Victimisation Risk behaviours Adolescent 

References

  1. Adiele I, Olatokun W (2014) Prevalence and determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents. Comput Hum Behav 31(1):100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anti-Bullying Working Group (2013) Action Plan On Bullying Report of the Anti-Bullying Working Group to the Minister for Education and Skills. In. http://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Education-Reports/Action-Plan-On-Bullying-2013.pdf Accessed 11th July 2014
  3. Bannink R, Broeren S, van de Looij-Jansen PM, de Waart FG, Raat H (2014) Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents. PLoS One 9(4):e94026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094026 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckman L (2013) Traditional bullying and cyberbullying among swedish adolescents gender differences and associations with mental health. Karlstad UniversityGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks FM, Magnusson J, Spencer N, Morgan A (2012) Adolescent multiple risk behaviour: an asset approach to the role of family, school and community. Journal of public health (Oxford, England) 34 Suppl 1:i48–56 doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fds001
  6. Central Statistics Office (2006) Census 2006. In. http://www.cso.ie/en/census/ Accessed 11th July 2014
  7. Central Statistics Office (2011) Census 2011. In. http://www.cso.ie/en/census/ Accessed 11th July 2014
  8. Craig W et al (2009) A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. Int J Public Health 54(Suppl 2):216–224. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5413-9 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Currie C et al (2010) Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study protocol: background, methodology and mandatory items for the 2009/2010 survey. CAHRU & Vienna, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  10. Currie C et al (2008) Inequalities in young people’s health Health Behaviour in School-aged Childern International report from the 2005/2006 survey. In: Currie C et al (eds). ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Due P, Holstein BE, Lynch J, Diderichsen F, Nic Gabhain S, Scheidt P, Currie C; The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Bullying Working Group (2005) Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries. Eur J Public Health 15(2):128–132. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cki105 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gavin A, Molcho M, Kelly C, Nic Gabhainn S (2013) The HBSC Ireland Trends Report 1998–2010: Child Health Behaviours, Outcomes and Contexts. http://www.nuigalway.ie/hbsc/documents/hbsctrends2013.pdf
  13. Harris CR, Jenkins M, Glaser D (2006) Gender differences in risk assessment: why do women take fewer risks than men? Judgm Decis Mak 1(1):48–63Google Scholar
  14. Hinduja S, Patchin JW (2008) Cyberbullying: an exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior 29(2):129–156. doi: 10.1080/01639620701457816 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Iossi Silva M, Pereira B, Mendonça D, Nunes B, Oliveira W (2013) The involvement of girls and boys with bullying: an analysis of gender differences. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10(12):6820–6831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelly C, Gavin A, Molcho M, Nic Gabhainn S (2012) The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010. In. http://www.nuigalway.ie/hbsc/documents/nat_rep_hbsc_2010.pdf. Accessed 11th July 2014
  17. Låftman SB, Modin B, Östberg V (2013) Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm Sweden. Child Youth Serv Rev 35(1):112–119. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Livingstone S, Haddon L, Görzig A, Ólafsson K (2011) EU kids online II: final report. London School of Economics and Political Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Menesini E, Modena M, Tani F (2009) Bullying and victimization in adolescence: concurrent and stable roles and psychological health symptoms. J Gene Psychol 170(2):115–134. doi: 10.3200/GNTP.170.2.115-134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mishna F, Saini M, Solomon S (2009) Ongoing and online: children and youth’s perceptions of cyber bullying. Child Youth Serv Rev 31(12):1222–1228. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mishna F, Khoury-Kassabri M, Gadalla T, Daciuk J (2012) Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: Victims, bullies and bully–victims. Child Youth Serv Rev 34(1):63–70. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Molcho M, Craig W, Due P, Pickett W, Harel-Fisch Y, Overpeck M (2009) Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994–2006: findings from Europe and North America. Int J Public Health 54(Suppl 2):225–234. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5414-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nuutinen T et al (2014) Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms: a cross-sectional study of 15-year olds in three countries. Int J Public Health 59(4):619–628. doi: 10.1007/s00038-014-0561-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Olweus D (1993) Bullying at school: what we know and what can we do. Blackwell publishers, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. O’Moore M (2012) Cyber-bullying: the situation in Ireland. Pastor Care Edu 30(3):209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Moore M, Kirkham C (2001) Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behaviour. Aggress Behav 27(5):269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Neill B, Dinh T (2014) Net children go mobile initial findings from Ireland. In. http://www.dit.ie/cser/media/ditcser/digitalchildhoods/NCGM_Ireland_initialfindingsreport_complete.pdf
  28. Pénard T, Poussing N, Suire R (2013) Does the internet make people happier? J Socio-Econ 46:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Radliff KM, Wheaton JE, Robinson K, Morris J (2012) Illuminating the relationship between bullying and substance use among middle and high school youth. Addict Behav 37(4):569–572. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Rigby K (2000) Effects of peer victimization in schools and perceived social support on adolescent well-being. J Adolesc 23(1):57–68. doi: 10.1006/jado.1999.0289 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sigurdson JF, Wallander J, Sund AM (2014) Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood? Child Abus Negl. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.06.001 Google Scholar
  32. Slonje R, Smith PK (2008) Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? Scand J Psychol 49(2):147–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith PK (2012) Cyberbullying: challenges and opportunities for a research program—a response to Olweus (2012). Eur J Dev Psychol 9(5):553–558. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2012.689821 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sourander A et al (2010) Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(7):720–728. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.79 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sticca F, Perren S (2013) Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying. J Youth Adolesc 42(5):739–750. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9867-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Storch EA, Masia-Warner C, Crisp H, Klein RG (2005) Peer victimization and social anxiety in adolescence: a prospective study. Aggress Behav 31(5):437–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sweeting H, Young R, West P, Der G (2006) Peer victimization and depression in early-mid adolescence: a longitudinal study. Br J Educ Psychol 76(3):577–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR (2009) School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. J Adolesc Health 45(4):368–375. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wigderson S, Lynch M (2013) Cyber- and traditional peer victimization: unique relationships with adolescent well-being. Psychol Violence 3(4):297–309. doi: 10.1037/a0033657 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williams J et al (2009) Growing up in Ireland National Longitudinal Study of Children the lives of 9-year-olds child cohort. In: The Stationery Office, Dublin. http://www.growingup.ie/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/1st_Report/Barcode_Growing_Up_in_Ireland_-_The_Lives_of_9-Year-Olds_Main_Report.pdf. Accessed 11th July 2014
  41. Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ (2007) Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolesc Health 41(6, Supplement):S42–S50. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.09.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Young SE, Corley RP, Stallings MC, Rhee SH, Crowley TJ, Hewitt JK (2002) Substance use, abuse and dependence in adolescence: prevalence, symptom profiles and correlates. Drug Alcohol Depend 68(3):309–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Promotion Research CentreNational University of Ireland GalwayGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations