International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 999–1009 | Cite as

Hypertension: diagnosis, control status and its predictors in general population aged between 15 and 75 years: a community-based study in southeastern Iran

  • Hamid Najafipour
  • Hamid Reza NasriEmail author
  • Mahdi Afshari
  • Mansoor Moazenzadeh
  • Mostafa Shokoohi
  • Afsaneh Foroud
  • Koorosh Etemad
  • Behnam Sadeghi
  • Ali Mirzazadeh
Original Article



Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at providing the prevalence of pre-HTN, diagnosed and undiagnosed HTN, along with its control and associated factors in an adult population.


5,900 participants aged 15–75 years took part in the study. HTN was verified by examination, self-reported history or using anti-hypertensive drug(s). Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined as 120–139/80–89 mmHg and >140/>90 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP, respectively.


The prevalence of hypertension was 18.4 % from which 10.5 %were diagnosed and 7.9 % were undiagnosed. The prevalence of pre-HTN was 35.5 %. HTN increased by age (2.4 % in 15–24 to 49 % in 55–64 years). The men had higher pre-HTN (42.7 vs. 28.1 %) and undiagnosed HTN (11.3 vs. 4.6 %). Of those diagnosed, 56.3 % had uncontrolled BP levels. Smoking, anxiety, obesity, and positive family history of HTN were the most significant predictors for HTN.


Hypertension affected almost one-fifth of the population. Given the poor control in diagnosed hypertensive patients, it is alarming that the current health system in urban areas in Iran is not effective enough to control the epidemic spread of non-communicable diseases.


Hypertension Pre-hypertension Undiagnosed hypertension Uncontrolled hypertension Risk factors Iran 



The KERCADR study is funded by the Physiology Research Center at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. We are deeply indebted to our colleagues in the University for helping in recruitment, interviewing and examining the study participants. We profoundly thank the participants of the study. We should send out our best gratitude to Dr. Maliheh Shadkam Farrokhi, who significantly contributed to the project, but unfortunately passed away in the middle of the first round. We also like to thank Nadia Ghazanfari-Moghaddam for proof-reading the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

KE participated in the planning and implementation of non-communicable diseases management in Ministry of Health program. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to be declared.


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Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Najafipour
    • 1
  • Hamid Reza Nasri
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mahdi Afshari
    • 3
  • Mansoor Moazenzadeh
    • 2
  • Mostafa Shokoohi
    • 1
  • Afsaneh Foroud
    • 2
  • Koorosh Etemad
    • 4
  • Behnam Sadeghi
    • 3
  • Ali Mirzazadeh
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Physiology Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmacologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology and Department of Cardiology, Afzalipour Medical Faculty, Shafa HospitalKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Research Center for Modeling in HealthKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Deputy of HealthMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran
  5. 5.Institute for Health Policy StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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