Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application
- 231 Downloads
The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3–8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI).
PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18–69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008–2012.
Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3 % increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3 % in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5 % increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012.
The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.
KeywordsSmoking ban Second-hand smoke exposure Italy Hospitality premises Workplaces Smoke-free homes
- American Association for Public Opinion Research (2008). Standard definitions: final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. In: 5th edn. Lenexa (KS). http://www.aapor.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Standard_Definitions&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1273. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Diomeda A. 2012. Seminario conclusivo del progetto “Definizione e implementazione di un sistema di monitoraggio del rispetto della normativa sul fumo in Italia”. L’attività del Comando Carabinieri per la tutela della Salute per il monitoraggio dell’art. 51 Legge 16 gennaio 2003 http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_newsAree_2405_listaFile_itemName_3_file.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Eurobarometer (2006). Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco. Special Eurobarometer 239. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_information/documents/ebs_239_en.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Eurobarometer (2009) Survey on Tobacco. Analytical report. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_253_en.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Eurobarometer (2012). Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco. Special Eurobarometer 385. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_385_en.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Ferrante G, Baldissera S, Moghadam PF, Carrozzi G, Trinito MO, Salmaso S (2011) Surveillance of perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the Italian adult population (18–69 years) during the 2009–2010 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. Eur J Epidemiol 26:211–219. doi:10.1007/s10654-011-9576-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gorini G, Moshammer H, Sbrogiò L et al (2008b) Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban. Indoor Air 18:328–334. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00534.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free policies, vol 13. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/prev/handbook13/handbook13.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Martínez-Sánchez JM, Blanch C, Fu M, Gallus S, La Vecchia C, Fernández E (2013) Do smoke-free policies in work and public places increase smoking in private venues? Tob Control. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050877
- Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Control (2009). Attività per la prevenzione del tabagismo. Rapporto 2009. http://www.ccm-network.it/documenti_Ccm/pubblicazioni/fumo_ministero_09.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Pierannunzi C, Hu SS, Balluz L (2013). A systematic review of publications assessing reliability and validity of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2004–2011. BMC Medical Research Methodology 13:49. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/13/49. Accessed 30 July 2013
- President of Ministers’ Council. Ordinance of the President of Ministers’ Council, 23 December 2003. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_normativa_446_allegato.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013
- Russo F, Michieletto F, Tagliapietra L, Marcolina D, Bino E (2012). Monitoraggio dell’osservanza della normativa inerente il divieto di fumare negli ambienti di vita e di lavoro. Risultati. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_1898_allegato.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2013