Environmental cadmium exposure and osteoporosis: a review
- 716 Downloads
To review the published literature investigating the association between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis.
A review of published peer-reviewed literature based on a priori criteria was completed. Odds ratios (OR) were abstracted or estimated from observational studies to calculate a pooled OR using inverse variance weighted random effects models.
The review identified seven studies with a pooled OR of OR = 2.22 (95 % CI: 1.16, 4.28) [I 2 = 54.8 % (p < 0.05)] (comparing highest urine cadmium category to lowest). In women over the age of 50 years, the pooled OR was 1.82 (95 % CI: 1.63, 2.02) [I 2 = 73.1 % (p < 0.05)]. A dose response evaluation (six studies) suggested increasing odds for osteoporosis with increasing urine cadmium levels.
This review detected an association between cadmium exposure and the occurrence of osteoporosis in a small number of cross-sectional studies which requires confirmation in using prospective study design.
KeywordsCadmium Environmental exposure Osteoporosis
- European Food Safety Authority (2009) Cadmium in food: scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain (question no EFSA-Q-2007-138). EFSA J 980:1–139Google Scholar
- Hagino N, Kono, M (1955) A study on the cause of Itai–itai disease In: Proc 17th Mtg Japanese Soc of Clinical Surgeons (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Hoffman, Matthew http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/living-with-osteoporosis-7/tests. (Accessed March, 2013)
- Nordberg GF, Nogawa K, Nordberg M, Friberg LT (2007) Cadmium. In: Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M, Friberg LT (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Third edition. Academic Press, New York, pp 446–486Google Scholar
- U.S. Public health Service (1942) Public health report, cadmium poisoning. Division industrial hygiene. Nation Inst Health 57:601–612Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. WHO (WHO Technical Report Series 843) GenevaGoogle Scholar