International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 285–293 | Cite as

Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action

Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally.

Methods

This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries.

Results

First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response.

Conclusion

Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.

Keywords

Multilateral organizations HIV/AIDS Policy process Event history analysis Policy diffusion 

References

  1. Altman Dennis (1999) Globalization, political economy, and HIV/AIDS. Theory Society 28(4):559–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Backer Thomas, Rogers Everett (1998) Diffusion of innovations theory and work-site AIDS programs. J Health Commun 3:17–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell C, Devarajan S, Gersbach H (2004) Thinking about the long-run economic costs of AIDS. In: Haacker M (ed) The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS. International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/AIDS/eng/chapter3.pdf. Retrieved on 21 Oct 2005
  4. Berry FS, Berry WD (1990) State lottery adoptions as policy innovations: an event history analysis. Am Political Sci Rev 84(2):395–415Google Scholar
  5. Brown L, Macintyre K, Trujillo L (2003) Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: What have we learned? AIDS Educ Prev 15(1):49–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark BY (2009) Policy adoption in dynamic international environments: evidence from national AIDS programs. Public Adm Dev 29(5):362–373. doi:10.1002/pad.555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Easterly W (2005) Global development network growth database: social indicators and fixed factors. The Development Research Institute, New York University, New York. http://www.nyu.edu/fas/institute/dri/dataset/Social%20Indicators%20Fixed%20Factors_7_2005.xls. Retrieved on 15 Oct 2005
  8. Elkins Zachary, Simmons B (2005) On waves, clusters, and diffusion: a conceptual framework. Ann Am Acad Soc Sci 598:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feng Yi (1997) Democracy, political stability and economic growth. Br J Political Sci 27(03):391–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gauri Varun, Lieberman ES (2006) Boundary institutions and HIV/AIDS policy in Brazil and South Africa. Stud Comp Int Dev 41(3):47–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goliber T (2002) Africa’s political response to HIV/AIDS. Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=6483 Retrieved on 21 Oct, 2005
  12. Gregson S, Waddell H, Chandiwana S (2004) School education and HIV control in Sub-Saharan Africa: from discord to harmony? J Int Dev 16:467–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank (2004) World Development Indicators. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Killick Tony (2004) Politics, evidence and the new aid agenda. Dev Policy Rev 22(1):5–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. La Porta R, Lopez-de-Silanes F, Shleifer A, Vishny R (1999) The quality of government. J Law Econ Org 15(1):222–279Google Scholar
  16. Long J (1997) Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Sage Publications Inc, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  17. Long JS, Freese J (2006) Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata, 2nd edn. Stata Press, College StationGoogle Scholar
  18. Mann J, Tratatola D (1996) AIDS in the World II. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Marshall MG, Jaggers K (2005) Polity IV Project: political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2002. Integrated Network for Societal Conflict Research (INSCR) Program Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM). University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Retrieved from: www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity
  20. Paget DZ (1996) AIDS and public health measures: a global survey of the activities of legislatures 1983–1993. Doctoral dissertation. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  21. Pisani E (2008) The wisdom of whores: bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS. W.W. Norton & Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Simmons BA, Dobbin Frank, Garrett Geoffrey (2006) The international diffusion of liberalism. Int Organ 60:781–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tews K (2005) The diffusion of environmental policy innovations: cornerstones of an analytical framework. Eur Environ 15:63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tews K, Busch P-O (2002) Governance by Diffusion? Potentials and restrictions of environmental policy diffusion. In: Biermann F, Brohm R, Dingwerth K (eds) Global Environmental Change and the Nation State. Proceedings of the 2001 Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, pp 168–182Google Scholar
  25. UNAIDS (2010) UNAIDS Global report 2010. UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS epidemic 2010. UNAIDS. Geneva. http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm
  26. UNAIDS/WHO (2004) Epidemiological fact sheets for 2004. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/GlobalAtlas/predefinedReports/EFS2004/index.asp
  27. United Nations Development Programme (2005) Human development report: Botswana. United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/detail_reports.cfm?view=461. Accessed 1 Sept 2005
  28. Walt G, Louisiana L, Ogden J (2004) International organizations in transfer of infectious diseases: iterative loops of adoption, adaptation, and marketing. Governance 17(2):189–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ (2000) Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 14(15):2361–2370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. World Bank (2005) Education statistics database. World Bank, Washington, DC. http://www1.worldbank.org/education/edstats/index.html. Retrieved on 19 Nov 2005
  31. World Council of Churches (2004) Mapping of resources–—Western Africa: Guinea. http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/what/mission/ehaia-html/wa-guinea-e.html. Accessed 1 Sept 2005)
  32. World Health Organization (2005) HIV/AIDS global report-data. http://www.who.int/emc-hiv/global_report/data/tab1.dif. Accessed 1 Sept 2005
  33. Zierler S, Krieger N (1997) Reframing women’s risk: social inequalities and HIV infection. Ann Rev Public Health 18(1):401–436Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Levin College of Urban AffairsCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations