Neighbourhood context and abuse among immigrant and non-immigrant women in Canada: findings from the Maternity Experiences Survey
- 436 Downloads
To examine the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and concentration of immigrants, and abuse among immigrant women versus non-immigrant women.
Using data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (un-weighted sample N = 5,679 and weighted sample N = 68,719) linked to the neighbourhoods Census data, we performed contextual analysis to compare abuse prevalence among: immigrants ≤5 years, immigrants >5 years and Canadian-born. We identified two level effect modifiers: living in high (≤15 % of households at or below low-income cut-off- [LICO]) versus low-income (>15 % below LICO) neighbourhoods and living in high (≥25 %) versus low immigrant (<25 %) neighbourhoods. Individual socioeconomic position (SEP), family variables and neighbourhood SEP or percentage of immigrants were considered in different logistic regression models.
Immigrant women were less likely to experience abuse even upon adjustment for individual SEP, family variables and neighbourhood characteristics. The protective effect of the neighborhood was stronger among immigrant women living in low-income and high immigrant neighborhoods, irrespective of length of stay in Canada.
Policies and interventions to reduce abuse among immigrant women need to consider neighbourhood’s SEP and concentration of immigrants.
KeywordsAbuse against women Abuse during pregnancy Violence Immigrant women Canada Neighbourhood socioeconomic position Neighbourhood immigrant concentration
The authors would like to thank the Maternity Experiences Study Group of the Public Health Agency of Canada’s Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System who developed and implemented the MES. No funding was sought or obtained to undertake this study. Nihaya Daoud and Marcelo Uriqua were supported by Postdoctoral Fellowships at St. Michael’s Hospital. Patricia O’Campo was supported by the Baxter and Alma Ricard Chair in Inner City Health. Maureen Heaman is supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Chair in Gender and Health.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Alba RD, Logan JR, Stults BJ (2000) The changing neighbourhood context of immigrant metropolis. Soc Forces 79(2):587–621Google Scholar
- Berkman LA, Kawachi I (2003) Neighborhoods and health. Oxford University Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Cohen M, Maclean H (2003) Violence against women. In: Desmeules M, Stewart D, Kazanjian A, Maclean H, Payne J (eds) Women’s Health Surveillance Report: a multidimensional look at the health of canadian women. Canadian Institute for Health Information, Ottawa, pp 45–46Google Scholar
- Cunradi C, Mair C, Ponicki W, Remer L (2011) Alcohol outlets, neighborhood characteristics, and intimate partner violence: ecological analysis of a California City. J Urban Health 88(2):191–200Google Scholar
- Dzakpasu S, Kaczorowski J, Chalmers B, Heaman M, Duggan J, Neusy E, For the maternity experiences study group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System, Public Health Agency of Canada (2008) The Canadian maternity experiences survey: design and methods. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 30(3):207–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frye V, O’Campo P (2011) Neighborhood effects and intimate partner and sexual violence: latest results. J Urban Health Bull New York Acad Med 88(2):187–190Google Scholar
- Helpren D, Nazroo J (1999) The ethnic density effect: results from a National Community Survey of England and Wales. Int J Soc Psychiatry 46:31–46Google Scholar
- Hosmer D Jr, Lemeshow S (eds) (2000) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hyndman J (1999) Gender and Canadian immigration policy: a current snapshot. Can Woman Stud 19(2):7–10Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada (1993) Violence against Women Survey Statistics Canada. http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/gender/vaw/surveys/Canada/1993_VAW_instrument.pdf, Accessed June 2011
- Statistics Canada (2006a) 2006 Census: immigration in Canada: a portrait of the foreign-born population, 2006 Census: Highlights. In: Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/p1-eng.cfm, Accessed 28 June 2011
- Statistics Canada (2006b) Census Dictionary Catalogue no.92-566-X 2010. Minister of Industry, Ottawa. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/pdf/92-566-eng.pdf, Accessed 8 June 2011
- Statistics Canada (2006c) Level of education from age 25 to 54, by immigration status, Canada, 2006. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11528/tbl/tbl002-eng.htm, Accessed 9 August 2011
- Statistics Canada (2011) Postal Code Concersion File. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=92F0153G&CHROPG=1&lang=eng, Accessed 2 January 2011
- Statistics Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada (2006) Microdata User Guide. Maternity Experiences Survey 2006, Ottawa.http://www23.statcan.gc.ca:81/imdb-bmdi/pub/document/5019_D1_T1_V1-eng.pdf, 2 January 2011
- Tjaden P, Thoennes N (2000) Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp 21–23. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/183781.pdf, Accessed Set. 1st 2011