International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 769–775 | Cite as

Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans

  • Lambros LazurasEmail author
  • Martin Zlatev
  • Angelos Rodafinos
  • J. Richard Eiser
Original Article



Identify the psychosocial variables that predict smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies at work, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free rights in Greek and Bulgarian workplaces.


Data were collected from employees in Greece and Bulgaria. The main outcome measures were smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness intentions. Demographic variables, tobacco use and dependence, as well as beliefs about second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking at work were also assessed.


Regression analyses showed that smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies was predicted by age, perceived health risks of smoking, and beliefs related to the benefits of smoking at work. Non-smokers’ assertiveness was predicted by annoyance from exposure to SHS at work, and assertiveness-related social cognitions (e.g., attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy).


Interventions to promote support for tobacco control policies at work in Greece and Bulgaria may benefit from targeting smokers’ beliefs about the actual effects of tobacco use on health and job performance. Accordingly, efforts to promote non-smokers assertiveness should build stronger assertiveness-related attitudes, convey anti-smoking normative messages, and strengthen self-efficacy skills.


Assertiveness Compliance Workplace smoking Greece Bulgaria SHS exposure 



This study has received financial support from Cancer Research UK, Grant No: C3841/A8924.


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Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lambros Lazuras
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Zlatev
    • 1
  • Angelos Rodafinos
    • 2
  • J. Richard Eiser
    • 3
  1. 1.South-East European Research Centre (SEERC)ThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.City CollegeInternational Faculty of the University of SheffieldThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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