Suicidal ideation and associated factors by sex in Korean adults: a population-based cross-sectional survey

Original Article

Abstract

Objective

This study investigates suicidal ideation and its associated factors by sex in Korean adults, focusing on health behaviors and health status.

Methods

Cross-sectional data of 6,969 adults (25–64 years) who completed the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed.

Results

In both sexes, those who were married, had higher educational attainment or were non-smokers experienced low stress and had good self-rated health showed lower suicidal ideation. Significant factors were age for men and subjective body image and sleep time for women. In men, those aged 45–54 years showed the highest suicidal ideation rate. The effects of stress and depression on suicidal ideation were higher in men than in women.

Conclusions

The development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adults requires different approaches for each sex. For working men aged 45–54 years, it should focus on the management of work-related stress and depression. For women, it should be a community support program for those who are less educated, have no job or experience a great deal of stress and depression.

Keywords

Suicide Adults Factors Sex 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

References

  1. Alexopoulos GS, Bruce ML, Hull J, Sirey JA, Kakuma T (1999) Clinical determinants of suicide ideation and behavior in geriatric depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:1048–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anne T, Eleonara G, Tiffany G, Laura F, Robert G (2007) Detecting determinants of suicide ideation: south Australian surveillance system results. Int J Public Health 52:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry HL, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T (2010) Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int J Public Health 55(2):123–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boden JM, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ (2008) Cigarette smoking and suicidal behavior: results from a 25-year longitudinal study. Psychol Med 38:433–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dzúrová D, Vevera J, Motlová L, Dragomirecká E (2008) Analysis of parasuicide, psychiatric care and completed suicides, implications for intervention strategy (Czech Republic, 1996–2000). Int J Public Health 53(3):139–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodwin RD, Marusic A (2008) Association between short sleep and suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adults in the general population. Sleep 31:1097–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hong SC, Kim MD, Lee SY (2003) Suicide risk in relation to social class: a national register-based study of all suicides in Korea, 1999–2001. Health Soc Sci 14:249–271Google Scholar
  8. Idler EL, Benyamini Y (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav 38:21–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iribarren C, Sidney S, Jacobs DR, Weisner C (2000) Hospitalization for suicide attempt and completed suicide: epidemiological features in a managed care population. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 35:288–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jeon GS, Jang SN, Rhee SJ, Kawachi I, Cho SI (2007) Sex differences in correlates of mental health among elderly Koreans. J Gerontol 62B:S323–S329Google Scholar
  11. Jessor R (1991) Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. J Adolesc Health 12:597–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jessor R (1998) New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jung HY, Roh SH (2007) A study on factors influencing elderly suicide ideation: focused on the mediating effects of depression and stress on suicide ideation. J Korean Geriatr Soc 27:789–805Google Scholar
  14. Kessler RC, Borges G, Walters EE (1999) Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:617–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khang YH, Lynch JW, Kaplan GA (2004) Health inequalities in Korea: age- and sex-specific educational differences in the 10 leading causes of death. Int J Epidemiol 33:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim HC (2006) Characteristics of suicide and suicide in adults on the type of study. Korean J Psychol Soc Issues 12:15–33Google Scholar
  17. King RA, Schwab-stone M, Flisher AJ, Greenwald S, Kramer RA, Goodman SH et al (2001) Psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of youth suicide attempts and suicide ideation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:837–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kjellstrom T, Butler AJ, Lucas RM, Bonita R (2010) Public health impact of global heating due to climate change: potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. Int J Public Health 55(2):97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koller T, Morgan A, Guerreiro A, Currie C, Ziglio E et al (2009) Addressing the socioeconomic determinants of adolescent health: experiences from the WHO/HBSC Forum 2007. Int J Public Health 54(2):278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr. Accessed 11 March 2010
  21. Lee HJ, Kim MH (2007) A path model for self-identity and hopeless to suicidal ideation of college students. J Korea Youth Res Assoc 14:243–264Google Scholar
  22. McGuire LC, Strine TW, Vachirasudlekha S, Anderson LA, Berry JT, Mokdad AH (2009) Modifiable characteristics of a healthy lifestyle and chronic health conditions in older adults with or without serious psychological distress, 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Int J Public Health 54(S1):S84–S93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mo¨ller-Leimku¨ hler AM (2003) The sex gap in suicide and premature death or: why are men so vulnerable? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 253:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nock MK, Borges G, Bromet EJ, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Beautrais A et al (2008) Cross-national prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Br J Psychiatry 192:98–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oh JK, Cho Y, Kim CY (2005) Socio-demographic characteristics of suicides in South Korea. Health Soc Sci 18:191–210Google Scholar
  26. Oner S, Yenilmez C, Ayranci U, Gunay Y, Ozdamar K (2007) Sexual differences in the completed suicides in Turkey. Eur Psychiatry 22:223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008) OECD health data 2008. http://www.oecd.org/health/healthataglance. Accessed 10 August 2010
  28. Park EO (2008) The influencing factors on suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea. J Korean Acad Nurs 38:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Payne S, Swami V, Stanistreet DL (2008) The social construction of sex and its influence on suicide: a review of the literature. J Men’s Health 5:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pikhartova J, Chandola T, Kubinova R, Bobak M, Nicholson A, Pikhart H (2009) Neighbourhood socioeconomic indicators and depressive symptoms in the Czech Republic: a population based study. Int J Public Health 54(4):283–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ravens-Sieberer U, Torsheim T, Hetland J, Vollebergh W, Cavallo F et al (2009) Subjective health, symptom load and quality of life of children and adolescents in Europe. Int J Public Health 54(S2):S151–S159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roberts R, Roberts C, Chen I (2001) Functioning of adolescents with symptoms of disturbed sleep. J Youth Adolesc 30:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sabo E, Reynolds C, Kupfer D, Berman S (1991) Sleep, depression, and suicide. Psychiatry Res 36:265–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shi Z, Taylor AW, Goldney R, Winefield H, Gill TK, Tuckerman J, Wittert G (2010) Int J Public Health. Online First™, 21 October 2010Google Scholar
  35. Statistics Korea (2009) Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics. http://www.kosis.kr/. Accessed 10 August 2010
  36. Strine TW, Dhingra S, Okoro CA, Zack MM, Balluz LS et al (2009) State-based differences in the prevalence and characteristics of untreated persons with serious psychological distress. Int J Public Health 54(S1):S9–S15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Taylor A, Grande ED, Gill T, Fisher L, Goldney R (2007) Detecting determinants of suicidal ideation: South Australian surveillance system results. Int J Public Health 52(3):142–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Turner HA, Turner RJ (1999) Sex, social status, and emotional reliance. J Health Soc Behav 40:360–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United Nations Development Program (2010) UNDP human development report 2009. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Vilhjalmsson R, Sveinbjarnardottir E, Kristjansdottir G (1998) Factors associated with suicide ideation in adults. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33:97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. World Health Organization (1996) Prevention of Suicide: Guidelines for the Formulation and Implementation of National Strategies. WHOGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao G, Ford ES, Li C, Strine TW, Dhingra S et al (2009) Serious psychological distress and its associations with body mass index: findings from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Int J Public Health 54(S1):S30–S36CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Korea Health Industry Development InstituteChungbukSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Health AdministrationDongseo UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Nursing ScienceSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations