International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 441–448

Development and validation of the stressful life event questionnaire

  • Hamidreza Roohafza
  • Mohammadarash Ramezani
  • Masoumeh Sadeghi
  • Maryam Shahnam
  • Behzad Zolfagari
  • Nizal Sarafzadegan
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

This study evaluates the development of the stressful life event (SLE) questionnaire and tests the validity and reliability of it.

Method

In total, 3,951 adults aged over 18 years completed the SLE questionnaire. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to further validate the SLE questionnaire.

Results

Eleven domains, including home life, financial problems, social relation, personal conflict, job conflict, educational concerns, job security, loss and separation, sexual life, daily life, and health concerns were obtained by factor analysis. Correlation coefficient was moderately significant among domains of the SLE questionnaire and moderately between the SLE questionnaire and GHQ-12 score, as well. The results of the discriminate validity analysis were promising. In addition, standardized Cronbach’-α was 92%.

Conclusion

The resultant SLE questionnaire is, therefore, suggested to be potential for the stress measurement in both community and primary care setting.

Keywords

Stress Stress measurement Development Validity Reliability 

Supplementary material

38_2011_232_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (948 kb)
Supplementary material (PDF 947 kb)

References

  1. Belbeisi A, Zindah M, Walke HT, Jarrar B, Mokdad AH (2009) Health related quality of life measures by demographics and common health risks, Jordan 2004. Int J Public Health 54(Suppl 1):106–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodenmann G, Atkins DC, Schär M, Poffet V (2010) The association between daily stress and sexual activity. J Fam Psychol 24:271–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byrne DG, Davenport SC, Mazanov J (2007) Profiles of adolescent stress: the development of the adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ). J Adolesc 30:393–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung CK, Leung K (2010) Ways that social change predicts personal quality of life. Soc Indic Res 96:459–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cicchetti DV (1994) Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normal and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychol Assess 6:284–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper CL (1984) Stress research. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Cousineau TM, Green TC, Corsini EA, Barnard T, Seibring AR, Domar AD (2006) Development and validation of the infertility self-efficacy scale. Fertil Steril 85:1684–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Djankov S, Ramalho R (2009) Employment laws in developing countries. J Comp Econ 37:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dohrenwend BS, Dohrenwend BP (1974) Stressful life events: their nature and effects. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Dohrenwend BS, Dohrenwend BP (1981) Stressful life events and their contexts. Prodist, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Dohrenwend BS, Krasnoff L, Askenasy AR, Dohrenwend BP (1978) Exemplification of a method for scaling life events: the PERI Life Events Scale. J Health Soc Behav 19:205–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dube SR, Caraballo RS, Dhingra SS, Pearson WS, McClave AK, Strine TW et al (2009) The relationship between smoking status and serious psychological distress: findings from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Int J Public Health 54(Suppl 1):68–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dunteman GH (1989) Principal components analysis. Quantitative applications in the social sciences series, no. 69. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  14. Fliege H, Rose M, Arck P, Walter OB, Kocalevent RD, Weber C et al (2005) The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) reconsidered: validation and reference values from different clinical and healthy adult samples. Psychosom Med 67:78–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillies P (1998) Effectiveness of alliances and partnerships for health promotion. Health Promot Int 13:99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldberg DP, Hillier VF (1979) A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychol Med 9:139–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hämäläinen P, Takala J, Saarela KL (2007) Global estimates of fatal work-related diseases. Am J Ind Med 50:28–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holmes TH, Rahe RH (1967) The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosom Res 11:213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jamal M (2005) Burnout among Canadian and Chinese employees: a cross-cultural study. Eur Manage Rev 2:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaplan HB (1983) Psychosocial stress. New York Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Kenny DT, Carlson JG, McGuigan FJ, Sheppard JL (2000) Stress and health: research and clinical applications. Harwood Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. McGuire LC, Strine TW, Vachirasudlekha S, Anderson LA, Berry JT, Mokdad AH (2009) Modifiable characteristics of a healthy lifestyle and chronic health conditions in older adults with or without serious psychological distress, 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Int J Public Health 54(Suppl 1):84–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Montazeri A, Harirchi AM, Shariati M, Garmaroudi G, Ebadi M, Fateh A (2003) The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Health Qual Life Outcomes 13:66. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-1-66 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nafikov RG, Simonova NI (2002) Chronic and acute stress in financial activities. Med Tr Prom Ekol 5:45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Pappa E, Kontodimopoulos N, Papadopoulos AA, Niakas D (2009) Assessing the socio-economic and demographic impact on health-related quality of life: evidence from Greece. Int J Public Health 54:241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pietilä I, Rytkönen M (2008) Coping with stress and by stress: Russian men and women talking about transition, stress and health. Soc Sci Med 66:327–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahe RH (1990) Life change, stress responsively, and captivity research. Psychosom Med 52:373–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Sarason IG, Johnson JH, Siegel JM (1978) Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the life experiences survey. J Consult Clin Psychol 46:932–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sarrafzadegan N, Sadri G, Malekafzali H, Baghaei M, MohammadiFard N, Shahrokhi S et al (2003) Isfahan healthy heart program: a comprehensive integrated community-based program for cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Acta Cardiol 58:309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarrafzadegan N, Baghaei A, Sadri GH, Kelishadi R, Malekafzali H, Boshtam M et al (2006) Isfahan healthy heart program: evaluation of comprehensive, community-based interventions for non-communicable disease prevention. Prev Control 2:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swindle RW, Moos RH (1992) Life domains in stressors, coping and adjustment. In: Walsh WB, Craik KH, Price RH (eds) Person-environment psychology: models and perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, p 33Google Scholar
  32. Taylor AH, Dorn L (2006) Stress, fatigue, health, and risk of road traffic accidents among professional drivers: the contribution of physical inactivity. Annu Rev Public Health 27:371–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Waszkowska M (2009) Temperament and perceived stress in road traffic. Med Pr 60:137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Watson P (2006) Stress and social change in Poland. Health Place 12:372–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wiwanitkit V (2010) Traffic noise, toxin, emotional stress: how to control? Noise Health 12:283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wrosch C, Heckhausen J, Lachman ME (2000) Primary and secondary control strategies for managing health and financial stress across adulthood. Psychol Aging 15:387–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zheng YP, Lin KM (1994) A nationwide study of stressful life events in Mainland China. Psychosom Med 56:306–307Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamidreza Roohafza
    • 1
  • Mohammadarash Ramezani
    • 2
  • Masoumeh Sadeghi
    • 3
  • Maryam Shahnam
    • 1
  • Behzad Zolfagari
    • 4
  • Nizal Sarafzadegan
    • 3
  1. 1.Mental Health Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center (WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training in Cardiovascular Diseases Control)Isfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Statistic and Evaluation Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Isfahan Cardiovascular Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of PharmacognosyIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations