International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 227–228 | Cite as

Effects of time-varying exposures adjusting for time-varying confounders: the case of alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection

  • Chanelle J. HoweEmail author
  • Petra M. Sander
  • Michael W. Plankey
  • Stephen R. Cole



Discuss issues related to time-varying exposures using as an example the recently meta-analyzed literature (Baliunas et al. in Int J Public Health, 2009) on alcohol consumption and risk of HIV infection.


Cataloged sources of bias and imprecision in the context of time-varying exposures.


Confounding, selection, or measurement bias may occur when standard regression approaches are used to estimate effects of time-varying exposures. The reviewed literature on alcohol consumption and HIV infection suffer from one or more of these biases.


Detailed prospective data and thoughtful implementation of appropriate statistical methods are needed to obtain unbiased estimates of time-varying exposures, such as alcohol consumption.


HIV/AIDS Alcohol Confounding Bias 


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Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chanelle J. Howe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Petra M. Sander
    • 1
  • Michael W. Plankey
    • 2
  • Stephen R. Cole
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public HealthThe University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA

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