Frequent occurrence of triploid hybrids Festuca pratensis × F. apennina in the Swiss Alps
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The occurrence of triploid hybrids in nature is scarce due to the so-called triploid block representing formation of nonviable progeny after mating diploid with tetraploid. Here we describe frequent presence of triploids originating from hybridization of diploid Festuca pratensis with tetraploid F. apennina in the Swiss Alps. F. pratensis is a forage grass grown in lowlands and up to 1800 m a.s.l., while F. apennina is a mountain grass found in elevations from 1100 to 2000 m a.s.l. In the overlapping zone these species often grow sympatrically and triploid hybrids have been observed. We show that elevation is the main factor in the distribution of plants with various ploidy levels. Diploids occupy lower elevations, while triploids predominate in the mid-elevation zones and tetraploids are the most frequent in higher elevations. Other factors, such as topography and soil composition probably have only marginal effects on the distribution of the plants with different ploidy levels. Triploids seem to be frequently formed in the Swiss Alps and crosses in both directions are involved in the formation of triploid hybrids. As shown by chloroplast DNA analysis, F. apennina more frequently serves as female. Our analysis suggests that in the mid-elevation zones, triploids have a higher level of competitiveness than both parents. Triploids can overgrow microhabitats to a much higher extent than tetraploids. Such frequent occurrence and local dominance of triploids can at least be partially explained by asexual reproduction. Using DNA markers, we show that triploids can disperse ramets of a single clone over a distance of at least 14.4 m.
KeywordsAsexual reproduction Triploid Grass Festuca Hybrid Clonality Fescue
We would like to express our thanks to Prof. Adam J. Lukaszewski for critical reading and valuable comments on the manuscript. Special thanks belong to the team of Diversity Arrays Ltd. lead by Dr. Andrzej Kilian for their help in processing the data on analysis of clonality and Dr. Jan Vrána and Eva Jahnová for technical assistance on flow cytometry measurements. We greatly appreciated the support of Dr. Manuel Schneider in identifying suitable sampling locations, and we wish to thank Cheng Zhao for technical assistance.
TF, FXS and BB sampled the specimens, DK and JD conducted flow cytometry measurements, VM performed chloroplast DNA analysis, DK and JB analyzed clonality using Diversity Arrays Technology, TF, FXS and BB realized soil analysis, DK drafted the manuscript, BB and JD revised manuscript critically for important intellectual content.
This study was partially funded by the grant award LO1204 from the National Program of Sustainability I. and the Czech Academy of Sciences Long-Term Research Development Project RVO 67985939.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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