Advertisement

Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 2320–2334 | Cite as

Speaker Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Based on Orthogonal Dipoles

  • Feng GuoEmail author
  • Yuhang Cao
  • Zhaoqiong Huang
  • Xing You
  • Haixing Guan
  • Jiaen Liang
  • Baoqing Li
Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

The small aperture microphone array becomes more and more popular in the consumer electronics. However, the small aperture usually limits the performance of the traditional DoA estimation methods. The differential microphone array (DMA) has attracted much attention, recently. The DMA has the frequency-independent beampatterns owing to the small size and the dipole is one of the basic types. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the direction-of-arrival (DoA) and the dipole beampatterns. It shows that the DoA can be directly yielded by an orthogonal dipole pair for the small aperture microphone array. Based on this relationship, we propose a speaker DoA estimation method with orthogonal dipoles (OD). The OD exhibits a good performance to DoA estimation. Nevertheless, it is vulnerable to the axial directions in the reverberant environment. To increase the robustness to the axial directions, we introduce the anti-reverberation function in OD and propose the improved OD method. Both simulations and experiments show that the proposed methods not only significantly outperform the traditional methods but also are much more computationally efficient without the spatial spectrum search.

Keywords

DoA estimation Differential microphone array Orthogonal dipoles Signal subspace 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is sponsored by Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, Fund No. 14ZR1447200. The authors would like to thank the associate editor and anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve this paper. Furthermore, as the first author, I would like to thank my wife Doctor Chen Wang. The more I know about you, the more deeply I fall in love with you. Without a splendid diamond or even a grand wedding, you married me. Thanks for being with me and supporting me. Love you forever.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Allen, D. Berkley, Image method for efficiently simulating small-room acoustics. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65(4), 943 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Aneeja, B. Yegnanarayana, Single frequency filtering approach for discriminating speech and nonspeech. IEEE-ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 23(4), 705–717 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    X. Anguera, C. Wooters, J. Hernando, Acoustic beamforming for speaker diarization of meetings. IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 15(7), 2011–2022 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, N. Roseveare, A. Pezeshki, Wideband DOA estimation algorithms for multiple moving sources using unattended acoustic sensors. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 44(4), 1585–1599 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Benesty, J. Chen, Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays (Springer, Berlin, 2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Benesty, M. Souden, Y. Huang, A perspective on differential microphone arrays in the context of noise reduction. IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 20(2), 699–704 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Bezzam, R. Scheibler, J. Azcarreta, H. Pan, M. Simeoni, R. Beuchat, P. Hurley, B. Bruneau, C. Ferry, S. Kashani, Hardware and software for reproducible research in audio array signal processing, in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2017), pp. 6591–6592Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Blandin, A. Ozerov, E. Vincent, Multi-source TDOA estimation in reverberant audio using angular spectra and clustering. Signal Process. 92, 1950–1960 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.D. Chen, J. Benesty, C. Pan, On the design and implementation of linear differential microphone arrays. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136(6), 3097–3113 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Cobos, A. Marti, J.J. Lopez, A modified SRP-PHAT functional for robust real-time sound source localization with scalable spatial sampling. IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 18(1), 71–74 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Ding, H. Chen, DOA estimation of multiple speech sources by selecting reliable local sound intensity estimates. Appl. Acoust. 127, 336–345 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2017.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Do, H.F. Silverman, Y. Yu, A real-time SRP-PHAT source location implementation using stochastic region contraction (SRC) on a large-aperture microphone array, in 2007 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing—ICASSP, vol. 1, pp. I-121–I-124Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Feng, L. Huawei, H. Jingchang, Z. Xin, Z. Xingshui, L. Baoqing, Y. Xiaobing, Design of a direction-of-arrival estimation method used for an automatic bearing tracking system. Sensors 16(7), 1145 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.S. Garofolo, Getting started with the darpa timit cdrom: an acoustic phonetic continuous speech database, in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (1988)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Guo, J. Huang, X. Zhang, Y. Cheng, H. Liu, B. Li, A two-stage detection method for moving targets in the wild based on microphone array. IEEE Sens. J. 15(10), 5795–5803 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    S. He, H. Chen, Closed-form DOA estimation using first-order differential microphone arrays via joint temporal-spectral-spatial processing. IEEE Sens. J. 17(4), 1558–1748 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. Huang, G. Zhan, D. Ying, Y. Yan, Robust multiple speech source localization using time delay histogram, in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2016), pp. 3191–3195Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.C. Jacob Benesty, I. Cohen, Design of Circular Differential Microphone Arrays (Springer, Berlin, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Jacobsen, Sound intensity, in Sound Intensity (2014), p. 1093–1114Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.M. Kitavi, K.T. Wong, M. Zou, K. Agrawal, Lower bound of the estimation error of an emitter’s direction-of-arrival/polarisation, for a collocated triad of orthogonal dipoles/loops that fail randomly. IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 11(7), 961–970 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Krim, M. Viberg, Two decades of array signal processing research—the parametric approach. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(4), 67–94 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Krolik, D. Swingler, Multiple broad-band source location using steered covariance matrices. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 37(10), 1481–1494 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.H. Lee, H.R.L. Lee, K.T. Wong, M. Razo, The spatial-matched-filter beam pattern of a biaxial non-orthogonal velocity sensor. J. Sound Vib. 367, 250–255 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.C. Lin, K.T. Wong, M.O. Cordel, J.P. Ilao, Beamforming pointing error of a triaxial velocity sensor under gain uncertainties. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(3), 1675 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.H. Moore, C. Evers, P.A. Naylor, Direction of arrival estimation in the spherical harmonic domain using subspace pseudointensity vectors. IEEE/ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 25(1), 178–192 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Muaz, Y.I. Wu, K.T. Wong, D. Su, A higher-order “figure-8” sensor and an isotropic sensor-for azimuth-elevation bivariate direction finding. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143(4), 2041 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Palla, L. Fanucci, R. Sannino, M. Settin, Wearable speech enhancement system based on MEMS microphone array for disabled people, In 2015 10th International Conference on Design, Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS) (2015), pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Pan, J.D. Chen, J. Benesty, Theoretical analysis of differential microphone array beamforming and an improved solution. IEEE-ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 23(11), 2093–2105 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.U. Pillai, B.H. Kwon, Performance analysis of music-type high-resolution estimators for direction finding in correlated and coherent scenes. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 37(8), 1176–1189 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.O. Schmidt, Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 34(3), 276–280 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Seifipour, S. Seyedtabaii, Computation saving in a SRP-PHAT sound source locator variant, in 2013 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    E.D. Sena, H. Hacihabiboglu, Z. Cvetkovic, On the design and implementation of higher order differential microphones. IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 20(1), 162–174 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Song, K.T. Wong, Acoustic direction finding using a spatially spread tri-axial velocity sensor. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 51(2), 834–842 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. Song, K.T. Wong, Closed-form direction finding using collocated but orthogonally oriented higher-order acoustic sensors. IEEE Sens. J. 12(2), 2604–2608 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Song, K.T. Wong, Y. Li, Direction finding using a biaxial particle-velocity sensor. J. Sound Vib. 340, 354–367 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Traa, D. Wingate, N.D. Stein, P. Smaragdis, Robust source localization and enhancement with a probabilistic steered response power model. IEEE/ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 24(3), 493–503 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Valaee, P. Kabal, Wideband array processing using a two-sided correlation transformation. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 43(1), 160–172 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    X. Zhang, J.C. Huang, E.L. Song, H.W. Liu, B.Q. Li, X.B. Yuan, Design of small MEMS microphone array systems for direction finding of outdoors moving vehicles. Sensors 14(3), 4384–4398 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Zhao, J. Benesty, J. Chen, Design of robust differential microphone arrays. IEEE/ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 22(10), 1455–1466 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y. Zhuliang, S. Rahardja, DOA estimation using two closely spaced microphones, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2002 (ISCAS 2002), vol. 2 (2002), pp. II-193–II-196Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Zohourian, G. Enzner, R. Martin, Binaural speaker localization integrated into an adaptive beamformer for hearing aids. IEEE/ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. 26(3), 515–528 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information TechnologyCASShanghaiChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS)BeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Unisound Information Technology Co Ltd.BeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute of AcousticsCASBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations