Advertisement

Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1231–1244 | Cite as

Wireless Fading Paradigm for Antenna Array Receiver for a Disk-Type Cluster of Scatterers

  • Surjeet Singh
  • Amit Kumar Kohli
Article

Abstract

This correspondence presents a signal processing based alternate approach for simulating the flat fading narrowband wireless channels for the antenna array receivers under the time-varying environment, in which the discrete disk of scatterers is incorporated around the mobile wireless transmitter to model the spreading of azimuth. The disk-type cluster of scatterers continuously changes due to the movement of the mobile wireless transmitter. Under this time-varying environment, each scatterer, at the successive stages of the disk, is correlated with the scatterers at the preceding stages of the disk using the second-order autoregressive process AR(2). At the receiver, one signal waveform is associated with each element of the antenna array taking into account the spread in azimuth of the received signal. The correlation of the fading waveforms generated by using the presented paradigm is compared with the expected analytical correlation results, which clearly manifests that the simulation results are consistent with the findings based on Jakes’ model. Moreover, the presented discrete disk-type cluster of scatterers fading model may be used to generate/simulate the variable diameter ring-type cluster of scatterers fading paradigm. The proposed channel model may play a significant role in the emerging field of wireless signal processing for the latest mobile communication systems.

Keywords

Rayleigh fading Autoregressive processes Jakes’ model Doppler spectrum Multipath fading 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Mr. Surjeet Singh is thankful to Mr. Divneet Singh Kapoor, Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Gharuan, Mohali, India for his fruitful suggestions and motivational technical discussions regarding the time-varying wireless fading channel modeling.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Abdi, M. Kaveh, A space-time correlation model for multielement antenna systems in mobile fading channels. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20(3), 550–560 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Adachi, M.T. Feeney, A.G. Williamson, J.D. Parsons, Crosscorrelation between the envelopes of 900 MHz signals received at a mobile radio base station site, in Proc. IEE Comm. Radar and Signal Process., vol. 133 (1986), pp. 506–512 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Anderson, M. Millnert, M. Viberg, B. Wahlberg, An adaptive array for mobile communication systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40(1), 230–236 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.C. Banister, J.R. Zeidler, Tracking performance of RLS algorithm applied to an antenna array in a realistic fading environment. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50(5), 1037–1050 (2002) CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Dent, G.E. Bottomley, T. Croft, Jakes’ model revisited. Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1162–1163 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.D. Durgin, T.S. Rappaport, Theory of multipath shape factors for small-scale fading wireless channels. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48(5), 682–693 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V.T. Ermolayev, A.G. Flaksman, Y.L. Rodygin, Methods of defining the vector of adaptive processing in antenna arrays at short sample case. Int. J. Electron. 76(3), 497–510 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.B. Ertel, J.H. Reed, Generation of two equal power correlated Rayleigh fading envelopes. IEEE Commun. Lett. 2(10), 276–278 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.B. Ertel, P. Cardieri, K.W. Sowerby, T.S. Rappaport, J.H. Reed, Overview of spatial channel models for antenna array communication systems. IEEE Pers. Commun. 5(1), 10–22 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.H. Fleury, First- and second-order characterization of direction dispersion and space selectivity in the radio channel. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46(6), 2027–2044 (2000) CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.L. Fulghum, K.J. Molnar, A. Duel-Hallen, The Jakes fading model for antenna arrays incorporating azimuth spread. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 51(5), 968–977 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.M. Ibrahimt, G.M. Abdel-Raheemt, Broad-band adaptive array processing using orthogonal functions. Int. J. Electron. 74(5), 753–763 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications (Wiley, New York, 1974) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.T. Kim, J.H. Yoo, H.K. Park, A spatially and temporally correlated fading model for array antenna applications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 48(6), 1899–1905 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Klouche-Djedid, M. Fujita, Adaptive array sensor processing applications for mobile telephone communications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 45(3), 405–416 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.K. Kohli, Fading model for antenna array receiver for a ring-type cluster of scatterers. Int. J. Electron. 98(7), 933–940 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.K. Kohli, D.K. Mehra, Tracking of time-varying channels using two-step LMS-type adaptive algorithm. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 54(7), 2606–2615 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.K. Kohli, D.K. Mehra, Adaptive multiuser channel estimator using reduced Kalman/LMS algorithm. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 46(4), 507–521 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.K. Kohli, D.K. Mehra, Adaptive DFE multiuser receiver for CDMA systems using two-step LMS-type algorithm—an equalization approach. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 54(3), 543–558 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W.C.Y. Lee, Mobile Communications Engineering (McGraw Hill, New York, 1982) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y.J. Liang, J. Chang, D. Shin, Joint carrier frequency offset estimation and signal detection in MIMO BLAST systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 58(6), 2783–2792 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.N. Nazar, W.P. Zhu, M.O. Ahmad, M.N.S. Swamy, A multiuser detection receiver using blind antenna array and adaptive parallel interference cancellation. Circuits Syst. Signal Process. 23(5), 409–432 (2004) CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.I. Pedersen, P.E. Mogensen, B.H. Fleury, A stochastic model of the temporal and azimuthal dispersion seen at the base station in outdoor propagation environments. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49(2), 437–447 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Petrus, J.H. Reed, T.S. Rappaport, Effects of directional antennas at the base station on the Doppler spectrum. IEEE Commun. Lett. 1(2), 40–42 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.I. Piterbarg, K.T. Wong, Spatial-correlation-coefficient at the base station, in closed-form explicit analytic expression, due to heterogeneously Poisson distributed scatterers. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 4(1), 385–388 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Salz, J.H. Winters, Effect of fading correlation on adaptive arrays in digital mobile radio. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 43(4), 1049–1057 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.P. Stapleton, X. Carbo, T. McKeen, Spatial channel simulator for phased arrays, in Proc. of IEEE Veh. Tech. Conference, vol. 3, Stockholm (1994), pp. 1789–1792 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.S. Thompson, P.M. Grant, B. Mulgrew, Smart antenna arrays for CDMA systems. IEEE Pers. Commun. 3(5), 16–25 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H.S. Wang, P. Chang, On verifying the first-order Markovian assumption for a Rayleigh fading channel model. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 45(2), 353–357 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H.Y. Wu, A. Duel-Hallen, On the performance of coherent and noncoherent multiuser detectors for mobile radio CDMA channels, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Universal Personal Comm., vol. 1, Cambridge, MA (1996), pp. 76–80 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    P.H. Wu, A. Duel-Hallen, Multiuser detectors with disjoint Kalman channel estimators for synchronous CDMA mobile radio channels. IEEE Trans. Commun. 48(5), 752–756 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Z. Yan, A.M. Sayeed, Probability of error and capacity of multipolarization antenna systems for downlink mobile communications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55(1), 256–269 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations