Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1279–1296 | Cite as

Circuits with Oscillatory Hierarchical Farey Sequences and Fractal Properties

  • Wieslaw Marszalek


We present two dual oscillating circuits having a wide spectrum of dynamical properties but relatively simple topologies. Each circuit has five bifurcating parameters, one nonlinear element of cubic current–voltage characteristics, one controlled element, LCR components and a constant biasing source. The circuits can be considered as two coupled oscillators (linear and nonlinear) that form dual jerk circuits. Bifurcation diagrams of the circuits show a rather surprising result that the bifurcation patterns are of the Farey sequence structure and the circuits’ dynamics is of a fractal type. The circuits’ fractal dimensions of the box counting (capacity) algorithm, Kaplan–Yorke (Lyapunov) type and its modified (improved) version are all estimated to be between 2.26 and 2.52. Our analysis is based on numerical calculations which confirm a close relationship of the circuits’ bifurcation patterns with those of the Ford circles and Stern–Brocot trees.


Oscillating circuits Bifurcations Singularly perturbed systems Farey sequence Stern–Brocot tree Ford circles Fractals 



The author would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and Dr. M.N.S. Swamy, Editor-in-Chief, for his helpful assistance in the review process. This work was done while the author was on a sabbatical at Martin Luther University in Halle–Wittenberg (Germany). Financial support of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation is greatly appreciated.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Engineering and Information SciencesDeVry UniversityNorth BrunswickUSA

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