Automatic Synthesis of VFs and VMs by Applying Genetic Algorithms

  • Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle
  • Miguel-Aurelio Duarte-Villaseñor
  • Ivick Guerra-Gómez
Article

Abstract

An automatic synthesis method is introduced to design voltage followers (VFs) and voltage mirrors (VMs) by performing evolutionary operations. It is shown that the nullor element is useful to introduce a new genetic representation to codify the behavior of the VF by a chromosome divided by four genes: small-signal (genSS), synthesis of the nullor by MOSFET (genSMos), bias (genBias), and synthesis of current mirrors (genCM). Further, it is shown that the behavior of the VM can be codified by evolving the chromosome of the VF. The proposed synthesis method uses SPICE to evaluate the fitness of the VF and VM. Finally, we show the synthesis of several VFs and VMs which are designed using standard CMOS technology of 0.35 μm. The applications and evolution of the VF and VM to synthesize more complex devices such as current conveyors (CCs) and inverting CCs are briefly discussed.

Keywords

Evolutionary electronics Genetic algorithms Circuit synthesis VF VM Nullor 

References

  1. 1.
    V. Aggarwal, Novel canonic current mode DDCC based SRCO synthesized using a genetic algorithm. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 40, pp. 83–85, 2004. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Arbel, Towards a perfect CMOS CCII. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 12, pp. 119–132, 1997. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Awad, A. M. Soliman, Inverting second generation current conveyors: the missing building blocks, CMOS realizations and applications. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 413–432, 1999. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Awad, A. M. Soliman, On the voltage mirrors and the current mirrors. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 2, pp. 79–81, 2002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. F. Bowers, A precision current-feedback operational amplifier. IEEE Bipolar Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), pp. 68–70, 1988. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. F. Bowers, Applying current feedback to voltage amplifier. IEE circuits and systems publication, London: Peter Peregrinus, pp. 569–595, 1990, chapter 16. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. P. Chen, M. T. Lin, W. S. Yang, Novel first-order non-inverting and inverting output of all-pass filter at the same configuration using ICCII. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. E89-C, No. 6, pp. 865–867, 2006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Fakhfakh, M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, Optimizing performances of switched current memory cells through a heuristic. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 115–126, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Fakhfakh, M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, C. Sánchez-López, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Symbolic noise figure analysis of CCII. Fourth International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Vol. IV, Hammamet, Tunisia, March 19–22, 2007. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. B. Grimbleby, Automatic analogue circuit synthesis using genetic algorithms. IEE Proc. Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 147, No. 6, pp. 319–323, 2000. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. S. Gupta, R. Senani, New single-resistance-controlled oscillator configurations using unity-gain cells. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 6, pp. 111–119, 2006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Hayatleh, A. A. Tammam, B. L. Hart, Novel input stages for current feedback operational amplifiers. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 50, pp. 163–183, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. A. Ibrahim, H. Kuntman, S. Ozcan, O. Suvak, O. Cicekoglu, New first-order inverting-type second-generation current conveyor-based all-pass sections including canonical forms. Journal: Electrical Engineering, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 299–301, 2004. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. R. Koza, L. W. Jones, M. A. Keane, M. J. Streeter, S. H. Al-Sakran, Toward automated design of industrial-strength analog circuits by means of genetic programming, Genetic Programming Theory and Practice II, pp. 121–142, 2004. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Kumar, R. Senani, Bibliography on nullors and their applications in circuit analysis, synthesis and design. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 33, pp. 65–76, 2002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Mattiussi, D. Floreano, Analog genetic encoding for the evolution of circuits and networks. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2006. doi:10.1109/TEVC.2006.886801. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. McConaghy, P. Palmers, G. Gielen, M. Steyaert, Simultaneous multi-topology multi-objective sizing across thousands of analog circuit topologies. IEEE DAC, pp. 944–947, 2007. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Minaei, E. Yuce, O. Cicekoglu, ICCII-Based voltage-mode filter with single input and six outputs employing grounded capacitors. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 559–566, 2006. MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. B. Salem, M. Fakhfakh, D. S. Masmoudi, M. Loulou, P. Loumeau, N. Masmoudi, A high performances CMOS CCII and high frequency applications. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 71–78, 2006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Z. R. Salem, M. A. Pacheco, M. Vellasco, Evolutionary Electronics: Automatic design of electronic circuits and systems by genetic algorithms, New York: CRC Press, 2002 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Schmid, Approximating the universal active element. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II, Vol. 47, No. 11, pp. 1160–1169, 2000. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. S. Sedra, K. C. Smith, A second generation current conveyor and its application. IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, Vol. 17, pp. 132–134, 1970. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. S. Sedra, K. C. Smith, The current conveyor: A new circuit building block. Proc. IEEE, Vol. 56, pp. 1368–1369, 1968. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Somani, P. P. Chakrabarti, A. Patra, An evolutionary algorithm-based approach to automated design of analog and RF circuits using adaptive normalized cost functions. IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 336–353, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. A. Svoboda, Current conveyors, operational amplifiers and nullors. IEE Proceedings, Part. G, Vol. 136, pp. 317–322, 1989. Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. Tlelo-Cuautle, M. A. Duarte-Villaseñor, J. M. García-Ortega, C. Sánchez-López, Designing SRCOs by combining SPICE and Verilog-A. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 373–379, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. Tlelo-Cuautle, D. Torres-Muñoz, L. Torres-Papaqui, On the computational synthesis of CMOS voltage followers. IEICE Trans. on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, Vol. E88-A, No. 12, pp. 3479–3484, 2005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Toker, H. Kuntman, O. Cicekoglu, M. Discigil, New oscillator topologies using inverting second-generation current conveyors. Turk J Elec Engin, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 119–129, 2002. Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Toker, A. Zeki, Tunable active network synthesis using ICCIIs. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 335–351, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Torres-Muñoz, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Automatic biasing and sizing of CMOS analog integrated circuits. IEEE MWSCAS, pp. 915–918, 2005. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Torres-Papaqui, D. Torres-Muñoz, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Synthesis of VFs and CFs by manipulation of generic cells. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 99–102, 2006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Unno, N. Fujii, Automated design of analog circuits accelerated by use of simplified MOS model and reuse of genetic operations. IEICE Trans. Electron., Vol. E90-C, No. 6, pp. 1291–1298, 2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Y. Wang, S. H. Chang, Y. L. Jeang, C. Y. Huang, Rearrangement of mirror elements. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 49, pp. 87–90, 2006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Y. Wang, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Huang, Characteristic investigation of new pathological elements. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 44, pp. 95–102, 2005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle
    • 1
  • Miguel-Aurelio Duarte-Villaseñor
    • 1
  • Ivick Guerra-Gómez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ElectronicsINAOETonantzintlaMexico

Personalised recommendations