Effects of small-scale turbulence on growth and grazing of marine microzooplankton
We report the effects of small-scale turbulence at realistic intensity (ε = 1.1 × 10−2 cm2 s−3) on the growth and grazing rates of three marine heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Peridiniella danica, Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina) and one ciliate (Mesodinium pulex). All the dinoflagellates showed a reduction of volume-based growth rates, whereas M. pulex did not. P. danica was the most affected by small-scale turbulence, followed by G. dominans, and O. marina. Turbulence slightly increased O. marina ingestion rates, but this increase was not statistically significant. G. dominans and M. pulex ingestion rates were modestly lower under turbulence, and P. danica completely ceased feeding in turbulent treatments. Gross growth efficiencies of G. dominans and O. marina were negatively affected by turbulence, whereas they remained unaltered for M. pulex. P. danica feeding and growth rates in the presence of turbulence were close to zero. Overall, there was a negative relationship between the effects of turbulence on ingestion rates and the time needed to process a prey item. Neglecting the effects of turbulence in microzooplankton grazing estimates in the field could produce biased approximations of their impacts on primary producers.
KeywordsProtozoan Microzooplankton Small-scale turbulence Dinoflagellate Ciliate Grazing Growth
We thank K. Griffell for her technical assistance and Dr. F. Peters for his help in the use of the turbulence generator set-up. P. danica and M. pulex cultures were kindly provided by H.H. Jakobsen. Projects PROTOS (CTM2009-08783) and FERMI (CGL2014-59227-R) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (co-financed with FEDER funds from the EU). R.A.M. was funded by a PhD fellowship from the National Commission of Science (CONICYT), Ministry of Education, Chile. This study is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2014SGR-498) at the Institut de Ciències del Mar-CSIC.
- Berdalet E, Estrada M (1993) Effects of turbulence on several dinoflagellate species. In: Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (eds) Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier, New York, pp 737–740Google Scholar
- Berdalet E, Estrada M (2005) Effects of small-scale turbulence on the physiological functioning of marine algae. In: Subba Rao DV (ed) Algal cultures, analogues and applications. Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, pp 459–500Google Scholar
- Dickey TD (1990) Physical-optical-biological scales relevant to recruitment in large marine ecosystems. In: Sherman K, Alexander LM, Gold BD (eds) Large marine ecosystems: Patterns, processes, and yields. American Association for Advancement in Science, pp 82–98Google Scholar
- Guadayol O, Peters F, Stiansen JE, Marrasé C, Lohrmann A (2009) Evaluation of oscillating grids and orbital shakers as means to generate isotropic and homogeneous small-scale turbulence in laboratory enclosures commonly used in plankton studies. Limnol Oceanogr Methods 7:287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Karentz D (1987) Dinoflagellate cell cycles. In: Kumar DH (ed) Phycotalk. Print House, India, pp 377–397Google Scholar
- Kiørboe T (1997) Small-scale turbulence, marine snow formation, and planktivorous feeding. Sci Mar 61:141–158Google Scholar
- Margalef R (1997) Turbulence and marine life. Sci Mar 61:109–123Google Scholar
- Neumann A (2008) Feeding mechanism of the dinoflagellate Peridiniella danica. Master Thesis, p 64Google Scholar
- Peters F, Redondo JM (1997) Turbulence generation and measurement: application to studies on plankton. Scien Mar 61(Supl. 1):205–228Google Scholar
- Saito H, Ota T, Suzuki K, Nishioka J, Tsuda A (2006) Role of heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium sp. in the fate of an iron induced diatom bloom. Geophys Res Lett 33:1–4Google Scholar
- Thomas WH, Tynan CT, Gibson CH (1997) Turbulence–phytoplankton interrelationships. In: Round FE, Chapman DJ (eds) Progress in phycological research. Biopress Ltd., Bristol, pp 283–324Google Scholar
- Yeung PKK, Wong JTY (2003) Inhibition of cell proliferation by mechanical agitation involves transient cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in dinoflagellates. Protoplasma 2000:173–178Google Scholar