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Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 443–458 | Cite as

Methane distribution and methane oxidation in the water column of the Elbe estuary, Germany

  • Anna Matoušů
  • Roman Osudar
  • Karel Šimek
  • Ingeborg Bussmann
Research Article

Abstract

The River Elbe, as one of the major waterways of central Europe, is a potential source of high amounts of methane into the North Sea. Twelve sampling cruises from October 2010 until June 2013 were conducted from Hamburg towards the mouth of the Elbe at Cuxhaven. The dynamic of methane concentrations in the water column and its consumption via methane oxidizing bacteria was measured. In addition, physico-chemical parameters were used to estimate their influence on the methanotrophic activity. We observed high methane concentrations at the stations in the area of Hamburg harbour (“upper estuary”) and about 10 times lower concentrations in the lower estuary (median of 416 versus 40 nmol L−1, respectively). The methane oxidation rate mirrored the methane distribution with high values in the upper estuary and low values in the lower estuary (median of 161 versus 10 nmol L−1 day−1, respectively). Methane concentrations were significantly influenced by the river hydrology (falling water level) and the biological oxygen demand while interestingly, no clear relation to the amount of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found. Methane oxidation rates were significantly influenced by methane concentration and to a lesser extent by temperature. Methane oxidation accounted for 41 ± 12 % of the total loss of methane in summer/fall periods, but for only 5 ± 3 % of the total loss in the winter/spring periods (total loss = methane oxidation + diffusion into the atmosphere). The average sea-air flux of methane was 33 ± 8 g CH4 m−2 y−1. We applied a box model taking into account the residence times of each water parcel depending on discharge and tidal impact. We observed almost stable methane concentrations in the lower estuary, despite a strong loss of methane through diffusion and oxidation. Thus we postulate that losses in the lower Elbe estuary were balanced by additional inputs of methane, possibly from extensive salt marshes near the river mouth.

Keywords

Estuary Methane Methane budget Methane oxidation River Elbe 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This Project was financially supported by project GAJU 145/2013/D, and by Project GAČR-13-00243S (PI-K. Šimek). I. Bussmann was supported by the Helmholtz society via the program PACES topic 2. A. Matoušů´s stay in the laboratory of the Microbial Ecology group at Helgoland was funded by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD). Our infinite gratitude belongs to the RV Ludwig Prandtl (Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany) and its crew; to Kristine Carstens for nutrient analyses; to Karl-Walter Klings for his technician support in the laboratory; to Prof. Hana Šantrůčková and Doc. David Boukal for allowing us to work in the laboratories of the Department of Ecosystem Biology at the Faculty of Science (University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice); and to Matthias Langer for his patient support during the sampling cruises. At least but not last our infinite gratitude belongs to the reviewers and editor for their improvements of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

27_2016_509_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1204 kb)

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© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of SciencesUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Biology Centre CAS, v.v.i.Institute of HydrobiologyČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  3. 3.Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und MeeresforschungPotsdamGermany
  4. 4.Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und MeeresforschungHelgolandGermany

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