Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 78, Issue 3, pp 573–590 | Cite as

The role of waterborne carbon in the greenhouse gas balance of drained and re-wetted peatlands

  • Chris D. EvansEmail author
  • Flo Renou-Wilson
  • Maria Strack
Research Article


Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals in managed ecosystems has generally focused on direct land–atmosphere fluxes, but in peatlands a significant proportion of total carbon loss occurs via fluvial transport. This study considers the composition of this ‘waterborne carbon’ flux, its potential contribution to GHG emissions, and the extent to which it may change in response to land-management. The work describes, and builds on, a methodology to account for major components of these emissions developed for the 2013 Wetland Supplement of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We identify two major components of GHG emissions from waterbodies draining organic soil: i) ‘on site’ emissions of methane (and to a lesser extent CO2) from drainage ditches located within the peatland; and ii) ‘off site’ emissions of CO2 resulting from downstream oxidation of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) within the aquatic system. Methane emissions from ditches were found to be large in many cases (mean 60 g CH4 m−2 year−1 based on all reported values), countering the view that methane emissions cease following wetland drainage. Emissions were greatest from ditches in intensive agricultural peatlands, but data were sparse and showed high variability. For DOC, the magnitude of the natural flux varied strongly with latitude, from 5 g C m−2 year−1 in northern boreal peatlands to 60 g C m−2 year−1 in tropical peatlands. Available data suggest that DOC fluxes increase by around 60 % following drainage, and that this increase may be reversed in the longer-term through re-wetting, although variability between studies was high, especially in relation to re-wetting response. Evidence regarding the fate of DOC is complex and inconclusive, but overall suggests that the majority of DOC exported from peatlands is converted to CO2 through photo- and/or bio-degradation in rivers, standing waters and oceans. The contribution of POC export to GHG emissions is even more uncertain, but we estimate that over half of exported POC may eventually be converted to CO2. Although POC fluxes are normally small, they can become very large when bare peat surfaces are exposed to fluvial erosion. Overall, we estimate that waterborne carbon emissions may contribute about 1–4 t CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 of additional GHG emissions from drained peatlands. For a number of worked examples this represented around 15–50 % of total GHG emissions.


Waterborne carbon Peatlands Drainage Greenhouse gases DOC Methane 



The contribution of C. Evans was supported in part by the UK Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Project SP1205) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change. We are grateful for the constructive comments of three anonymous reviewers.

Supplementary material

27_2015_447_MOESM1_ESM.doc (86 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 86 kb)


  1. Algesten G, Sobek S, Bergström AK, Ågren A, Tranvik L, Jansson M (2003) Role of lakes for organic carbon cycling in the boreal zone. Glob Chang Biol 10:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alm A, Shurpali N, Minkinnen K, Aro L, Hytönen J, Laurila T, Lohila A, Maljanen M, Martikainen PJ, Mäkiranta P, Penttilä T, Saarnio S, Silvan N, Tuitilla ES, Laine J (2008) Emission factors and their uncertainty for the exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O in Finnish managed peatlands. Boreal Env Res 12:191–209Google Scholar
  3. Álvarez-Selgado XA, Miller AEJ (1998) Dissolved organic carbon in a large macrotidal estuary (the Humber, UK): behaviour during estuarine mixing. Mar Pollut Bull 37:216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Åström M, Aaltonen EK, Koivusaari (2001) Effect of ditching operations on stream-water chemistry in a boreal forested catchment. Sci Total Environ 279:117–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker A, Bolton L, Newson M, Spencer RGM (2008) Spectrophotometric properties of surface water dissolved organic matter in an afforested upland peat catchment. Hydrol Process 22:2325–2336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barros N, Cole JJ, Tranvik LJ, Prairie YT, Bastviken D, Vl Huszar, del Giorgio P, Roland F (2011) Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs linked to reservoir age and latitude. Nat Geosci 9:593–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battin TJ, Kaplin LA, Findlay S, Hopkinson CS, Marti E, Packman AI, Newbold DI, Sabater S (2008) Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks. Nat Geosci 1:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Best EPH, Jacobs FHH (1997) The influence of raised water table levels on carbon dioxide and methane production in ditch dissected peat grasslands in the Netherlands. Ecol Eng 8:129–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianchi TS (2011) The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: a changing paradigm and the priming effect. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:19473–19481PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Billett MF, Harvey FH (2013) Measurements of CO2 and CH4 evasion from UK Peatland headwater streams. Biogeochemistry 114:165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Billett MF, Moore TR (2008) Supersaturation and evasion of CO2 and CH4 in surface waters at Mer Bleue peatland, Canada. Hydrol Process 22:2044–2054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Billett MF, Palmer SM, Hope D, Deacon C, Storeton-West R, Hargreaves KJ, Flechard C, Fowler D (2004) Linking land-atmosphere-stream carbon fluxes in a lowland peatland system. Global Biogeochem Cycl 18:GB1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bridgham S, Megonigal JP, Keller JK, Bliss NB, Trettin C (2006) The carbon balance of North American wetlands. Wetlands 26:889–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buffam I, Turner MG, Desai AR, Hanson PC, Rusak JA, Lottig NR, Stanley EH, Carpenter SR (2011) Integrating aquatic and terrestrial components to construct a complete carbon budget for a north temperate lake district. Glob Chang Biol 17:1193–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burdige DJ (2005) Burial of terrestrial organic matter in marine sediments: a re-assessment. Glob Biogeochem Cycl 19:GB4011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Byrne KA, Chojnicki B, Christensen TR, Droesler M, Freibauer A, Fribourg T, Frlking S, Lindroth A, Mailhammer J, Malmer N, Selin P, Turunen J, Valentini R, Zetterberg L (2004) EU peatlands: current carbon stocks and trace gas fluxes. October 2003. Carbo Europe Discussion Paper for Concerted Action CarboEurope-GHG, LundGoogle Scholar
  17. Chistotin MV, Siгin AA, Dulov LE (2006) Seasonal dynamics of caгbon dioxide and methane emission from a peatland in Moscow Region drained for peat extгaction and agricultuгal use. Agrokhimija 6:54–62Google Scholar
  18. Ciais P, Borges AV, Abril G, Meybeck M, Folberth G, Hauglustaine D, Janssen IA (2008) The impact of lateral carbon fluxes on the European carbon balance. Biogeosciences 5:1259–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark JM, Lane SN, Chapman PJ, Adamson JK (2007) Export of dissolved organic carbon from an upland peatland during storm events: implications for flux estimates. J Hydrol 347:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clay GD, Dixon S, Evans MG, Rowson JG, Worrall F (2012) Carbon dioxide fluxes and DOC concentrations of eroding blanket peat gullies. Earth Surf Process Landf 37:562–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooper M, Evans CD, Zieliński P, Levy PE, Gray A, Peacock M, Fenner N, Freeman C (2014) Infilled ditches are hotspots of landscape methane flux following peatland restoration. Ecosystems 17:1227–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cory RM, Ward CP, Crump BC, Kling GW (2014) Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters. Science 345:925–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Couwenberg J, Thiele A, Tanneberger F, Augustin J, Bärisch S, Dubovik D, Liashchynskaya N, Michaelis D, Minke M, Skuratovich A, Joosten J (2011) Assessing greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands using vegetation as a proxy. Hydrobiologia 674:67–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dawson JJC, Bakewell T, Billett MF (2001) Is in-stream processing an important control on spatial changes in carbon fluxes in headwater catchments? Sci Total Environ 265:153–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dawson JJC, Billett MF, Hope D, Palmer SM, Deacon CM (2004) Sources and sinks of aquatic carbon in a peatland stream continuum. Biogeochemistry 70:71–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dinsmore KJ, Billett MF, Moore TR (2009) Transfer of carbon dioxide and methane through the soil-water-atmosphere system at Mer Bleue peatland, Canada. Hydrol Process 23:330–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dinsmore KJ, Billett MF, Skiba UM, Rees RM, Drewer J, Helfter C (2010) Role of the aquatic pathway in the carbon and greenhouse gas budgets of a peatland catchment. Glob Chang Biol 16:2750–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans CD, Jones TG, Burden A, Ostle N, Zieliński P, Cooper MDA, Peacock M, Clark JM, Oulehle F, Cooper D, Freeman C (2012) Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils. Glob Chang Biol 18:3317–3331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans C, Allott T, Billett M, Burden A, Chapman P, Dinsmore K, Evans M, Freeman C, Goulsbra C, Holden J, Jones D, Jones T, Moody C, Palmer S, Worrall F (2013) Greenhouse gas emissions associated with non gaseous losses of carbon from peatlands – fate of particulate and dissolved carbon. Final report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Project SP1205. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, BangorGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans CD, Bonn A, Holden J, Reed M, Evans M, Worrall F, Couwenberg J, Parnell M (2014a) Relationships between anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem functions in UK blanket bogs: linking process understanding to ecosystem service valuation. Ecosys Serv 9:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evans CD, Page SE, Jones T, Moore S, Gauci V, Laiho R, Hruška J, Allott TEH, Billett MF, Tipping E, Freeman C, Garnett MH (2014b) Contrasting vulnerability of drained tropical and high-latitude peatlands to fluvial loss of stored carbon. Glob Biogeochem Cycl. doi: 10.1002/2013GB004782 Google Scholar
  32. Fasching C, Battin T (2012) Exposure of dissolved organic matter to UV-radiation increases bacterial growth efficiency in a clear-water Alpine stream and its adjacent groundwater. Aquat Sci 74:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiedler S, Höll BS, Freibauer A, Stahr K, Drösler M, Schloter M, Jungkunst HF (2008) Particulate organic carbon (POC) in relation to other pore water carbon fractions in drained and rewetted fens in Southern Germany. Biogeosciences 5:1615–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frank S, Tiemeyer B, Gelbrecht J, Freibauer A (2014) High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting. Biogeosciences 11:2309–2324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frolking S, Roulet N, Fuglestvedt (2006) How northern peatlands influence the Earth’s radiative budget: sustained methane emission versus sustained carbon sequestration. J Geophys Res 111:G01008Google Scholar
  36. Gibson HS, Worrall F, Burt TP, Adamson JK (2009) DOC budgets of drained peat catchments: implications for DOC production in peat soils. Hydrol Process 23:1901–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gielen B, Neirynck J, Luyssaert S, Janssens IA (2011) The importance of dissolved organic carbon fluxes for the carbon balance of a temperate Scots pine forest. Agric For Meteorol 151:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glaser PH, Wheeler GA, Gorham E, Wright HE (1981) The patterned mires of the Red Lake peatland., Northern Minnesota: vegetation, water chemistry and landforms. J Ecol 69:575–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gudasz C, Bastviken D, Steger K, Premke K, Sobek S, Tranvik LJ (2010) Temperature-controlled organic carbon mineralization in lake sediments. Nature 466:478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holden J (2006) Sediment and particulate carbon removal by pipe erosion increase over time in blanket peatlands as a consequence of land drainage. J Geophys Res 111:F02010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holden J, Chapman PJ, Palmer SM, Kay R, Grayson R (2012) The impacts of prescribed moorland burning on water colour and dissolved organic carbon: a critical synthesis. J Environ Manag 101:92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hooijer A, Page S, Canadell JG, Silvius M, Kwadijk J, Wösten H, Jauhianen (2010) Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences 7:1505–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hope D, Palmer SM, Billett MF, Dawson JJC (2001) Carbon dioxide and methane evasion from a temperate peatland stream. Limnol Oceanogr 46:847–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huotari J, Nykänen H, Forsius M, Arvola L (2013) Effect of catchment characteristics on aquatic carbon export from a boreal catchment and its importance in regional carbon cycling. Glob Chang Biol 19:3607–3620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hyvönen NP, Huttunen JT, Narasinha NJ, Lind SE, Marushchak ME, Heitto L, Martikainen PJ (2013) The role of drainage ditches in greenhouse gas emissions and surface leaching losses from a cutaway peatland cultivated with a perennial bioenergy crop. Boreal Env Res 18:109–126Google Scholar
  46. IPCC (2006). 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, prepared by the national greenhouse gas inventories programme. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds). Intergovernmental panel on climate change, IGES, JapanGoogle Scholar
  47. IPCC (2014a). 2013 supplement to the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories: Wetlands. Hiraishi T, Krug T, Tanabe K, Srivastava N, Baasansuren J, Fukuda M, Troxler TG (eds). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  48. IPCC (2014b) Chapter 11, IPCC climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. contribution of working group iii to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Jauhiainen J, Silvennoinen H (2012) Diffusion GHG fluxes at tropical peatland drainage canal water surfaces. Suo 63:93–105Google Scholar
  50. Jauhiainen J, Hooijer A, Page SE (2012) Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia. Biogeosciences 9:617–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Joensuu S, Ahti E, Vuollekoski M (2001) Long-term effects of maintaining ditch networks on runoff water quality. Suo 52:17–28Google Scholar
  52. Joensuu S, Ahti E, Vuollekoski M (2002) Effects of ditch network maintenance on the chemistry of run-off water from peatland forests. Scand J For Res 17:238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones TG, Evans CD, Jones D, Hill PW (2015) Transformation and loss of peat-derived DOC by solar radiation and biofilm uptake: evidence from a 14C isotope tracer study. Aquat Sci (this issue)Google Scholar
  54. Jonsson A, Algesten G, Bergström AK, Bishop K, Sobek S, Tranvik LJ, Jansson M (2007) Integrating aquatic carbon fluxes in a boreal catchment carbon budget. J Hydrol 334:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joosten H, Clarke D (eds) (2002) Wise use of mires and peatlands, background and principles including a framework for decision-making. International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  56. Juutinen S, Väliranta M, Kuutti V, Laine AM, Virtanen T, Seppä H, Weckström J, Tuitilla ES (2013) Short-term and long-term carbon dynamics in a northern peatland-stream-lake continuum: a catchment approach. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 118:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kindler R et al (2011) Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance. Glob Chang Biol 17:1167–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koehler AK, Sottocornola M, Kiely G (2011) How strong is the current carbon sequestration of an Atlantic blanket bog? Glob Chang Biol 17:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Köhler S, Buffam I, Jonsson A, Bishop K (2002) Photochemical and microbial processing of stream and soil water dissolved organic matter in a boreal forested catchment in northern Sweden. Aquat Sci 64:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Laiho R (2006) Decomposition in peatlands: reconciling seemingly contrasting results on the impacts of lowered water levels. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2011–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lou X-D, Zhai S-Q, Kang B, Hu Y-L, Hu L-L (2014) Rapid response of hydrological loss of DOC to water table drawdown and warming in Zoige peatland: results from a mesocosm experiment. PLoS ONE 9(11):e109861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109861 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marttila H, Kløve B (2008) Erosion and delivery of deposited peat sediment. Water Resour Res 44:W06406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marttila H, Kløve B (2010) Dynamics of erosion and suspended sediment transport from drained peatland forestry. J Hydrol 388:414–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meybeck M (1982) Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transport by the world’s rivers. Am J Sci 282:401–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Minkkinen K, Laine J (2006) Vegetation heterogeneity and ditches create spatial variability in methane fluxes from peatlands drained for forestry. Plant Soil 285:289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moody CS, Worrall F, Evans CD, Jones TJ (2013) The rate of loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through a catchment. J Hydrol 492:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore S, Evans CD, Page SE, Garnett MG, Jones TG, Freeman C, Hooijer A, Wiltshire A, Limin S, Gauci V (2013) Deep instability of deforested tropical peatlands revealed by fluvial organic carbon fluxes. Nature 493:660–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nieminen M (2004) Export of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus following clear-cutting of three Norway spruce forests growing on drained peatlands in southern Finland. Silv Fenn 38:123–132Google Scholar
  69. Nieminen M, Koskinen M, Sarkkola S, Laurén A, Kaila A, Kiikkilä O, Nieminen TM, Ukonmaanaho L (2015) Dissolved organic carbon export from harvested peatland forests with differing site characteristics. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nilsson M, Sagerfors J, Buffam I, Laudon H, Eriksson T, Grelle A, Klemedtsson L, Weslien P, Lindroth A (2008) Contemporary carbon accumulation in a boreal oligotrophic minerogenic mire—a significant sink after accounting for all C-fluxes. Glob Chang Biol 14:2317–2332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Opsahl S, Benner R (1997) Distribution and cycling of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in the ocean. Nature 386:480–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Page SE, Rieley JO, Banks CJ (2011) Global and regional importance of the tropical peatland carbon pool. Glob Chang Biol 17:798–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pastor J, Solin J, Bridgham SD, Updegraff K, Harth C, Weishampel Dewey B (2003) Global warming and the export of dissolved organic carbon from boreal peatlands. Oikos 100:380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Palmer SM, Evans CD, Chapman PJ, Burden A, Jones TG, Allott TEH, Evans MG, Moody CS, Worrall F, Holden J (2015) Sporadic hotspots for physico-chemical retention of aquatic organic carbon: from peatland headwater source to sea. Aquat Sci (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s00027-015-0448-x Google Scholar
  75. Rantakari M, Mattsson T, Kortelainen P, Piirainen S, Finér L, Ahtiainen M (2010) Organic and inorganic carbon concentrations and fluxes from managed and unmanaged boreal first-order catchments. Sci Total Environ 408:1649–1658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Renou-Wilson F, Barry C, Müller C, Wilson D (2014) The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone. Biogeosciences 11(16):4361–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Repo ME, Huttunen JT, Naumov AV et al (2007) Release of CO2 and CH4 from small wetland lakes in western Siberia. Tellus 59:788–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roulet NT, Moore TR (1995) The effect of forestry drainage practices on the emission of methane from northern peatlands. Can J For Res 25:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roulet NT, LaFleur PM, Richards PJ, Moore TR, Humphreys ER, Bubier J (2007) Contemporary carbon balance and late Holocene carbon accumulation in a northern peatland. Glob Chang Biol 13:397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schelker J, Eklöf K, Bishop K, Laudon H (2012) Effects of forestry operations on dissolved organic carbon concentrations and export in boreal first-order streams. J Geophys Res 117:G01011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schelker J, Öhman K, Löfgren S, Laudon H (2014) Scaling of increased dissolved organic carbon inputs by forest clear-cutting—what arrives downstream? J Hydrol 508:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schlünz B, Schneider RR (2000) Transport of terrestrial organic carbon to the oceans by rivers: re-estimating flux- and burial rates. Int J Earth Sci 88:599–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schrier-Uijl AP, Kroon PS, Leffalaar PA, van Huissteden JC, Berendse F, Veenendal EM (2010) Methane emissions in two drained peat agro-ecosystems with high and low agricultural intensity. Plant Soil 329:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schrier-Uijl AP, Veraart AJ, Leffelaar PJ, Berendse F, Veenendaal EM (2011) Release of CO2 and CH4 from lakes and drainage ditches in temperate wetlands. Biogeochemistry 102:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sholkovitch ER, Boyle EA, Price NB (1978) The removal of dissolved humic acids and iron during estuarine mixing. Earth Planet Sci Lett 40:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sirin AA, Suvorov GG, Chistotin MV, Glagolev MV (2012) Values of methane emission from drainage ditches. Environ Dyn Clim Chang 3:1–10Google Scholar
  87. Sobek S, Algesten G, Bergström AK, Jansson M, Tranvik LJ (2003) The catchment and climate regulation of pCO2 in boreal lakes. Glob Chang Biol 9:630–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spencer RGM, Ahad JME, Baker A, Cowie GL, Ganeshram R, Upstill-Goddard RC, Uher G (2007) The estuarine mixing behaviour of peatland derived dissolved organic carbon and its relationship to chromophoric dissolved organic matter in two North Sea estuaries (UK). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Strack M, Zuback YCA (2013) Annual carbon balance of a peatland 10 year following restoration. Biogeosciences 10:2885–2896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Strack M, Waddington JM, Bourbonniere RA, Buckton L, Shaw K, Whittington P, Price JS (2008) Effect of water table drawdown on peatland dissolved organic carbon export and dynamics. Hydrol Process 22:3373–3385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sundh I, Nilsson M, Mikkelä C, Granberg G, Svensson BH (2000) Fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide on peat-mining areas in Sweden. Ambio 29:499–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tappin AD, Harris JRW, Uncles RJ (2003) The fluxes and transformations of suspended particles, carbon and nitrogen in the Humber estuarine system (UK) from 1994 to 1996: results from an integrated observation and modelling study. Sci Total Environ 314:665–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Teh YA, Silver WL, Sonnentag O, Detto M, Kelly M, Baldocchi DD (2011) Large greenhouse gas emissions from a temperate peatland pasture. Ecosystems 14:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tranvik LJ, Downing JA, Cotner JB et al (2009) Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate. Limnol Oceanogr 54:2298–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turner EK, Worrall F, Burt TP (2013) The effect of drain blocking on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) budget of an upland peat catchment in the UK. J Hydrol 479:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. van den Pol-van Dasselaar A, van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (1999) Methane emissions from wet Grasslands on peat soil in a nature preserve. Biogeochemistry 44:205–220Google Scholar
  97. Vermaat JE, Hellmann F, Dias ATC, Hoorens B, van Logtestijn RSP, Aerts R (2011) Greenhouse gas fluxes from Dutch peatland water bodies: importance of the surrounding landscape. Wetlands 31:493–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Waddington JM, Day SM (2007) Methane emissions from a peatland following restoration. J Geophys Res 112:G03018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Waddington JM, Tóth K, Bourbonniere R (2008) Dissolved organic carbon export from a cutover and restored peatland. Hydrol Process 22:2215–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wallage ZE, Holden J, McDonald AT (2006) Drain blocking: an effective treatment for reducing dissolved organic carbon loss and water discolouration in a drained peatland. Sci Total Environ 367:811–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wallin M, Buffam I, Öquist M, Bishop K (2010) Temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic carbon in a boreal stream network: concentrations and downstream fluxes. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 115:G02014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wallin M, Grabs T, Buffam I, Laudon H, Ågren A, Oquist G, Bishop K (2013) Evasion of CO2 from streams—the dominant component of the carbon export through the aquatic conduit in a boreal landscape. Glob Chang Biol 19:785–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Walling DE, Owens PN, Leeks GJL (1998) The role of channel and floodplain storage in the suspended sediment budget of the River Ouse, Yorkshire, UK. Geomorphology 22:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Waltham T (2000) Peat subsidence at the Holme Post. Mercian Geol 15:49–51Google Scholar
  105. Wilson L, Wilson J, Holden J, Johnstone I, Armstrong A, Morris M (2011) Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss. Sci Total Environ 409:2010–2018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Worrall F, Reed M, Warburton J, Burt T (2003) Carbon budget for a British upland peat catchment. Sci Total Environ 312:133–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Worrall F, Armstrong A, Holden J (2007) Short-term impact of peat drain-blocking on water colour, dissolved organic carbon concentration, and water table depth—post drainage DOC flux. J Hydrol 337:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Worrall F, Rowson JG, Evans MG, Pawson R, Daniels S, Bonn A (2011) Carbon fluxes from eroding peatlands—the carbon benefit of revegetation following wildfire. Earth Surf Process Landf 36:1487–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Worrall F, Burt TP, Howden NJK (2014) The fluvial flux of particulate organic matter from the UK: quantifying in-stream losses and carbon sinks. J Hydrol 519:611–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yeloff DE, Labadz JC, Hunt CO, Higgitt DL, Foster IDL (2005) Blanket peat erosion and sediment yield in an upland reservoir catchment in the southern Pennines, UK. Earth Surf Process Landf 30:717–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yu ZC (2012) Northern peatland carbon stocks and dynamics: a review. Biogeosciences 9:4071–4085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zak D, Gelbrecht J (2007) The mobilisation of phosphorus, organic carbon and ammonium in the initial stage of fen rewetting (a case study from NE Germany). Biogeochemistry 85:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris D. Evans
    • 1
    Email author
  • Flo Renou-Wilson
    • 2
  • Maria Strack
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and HydrologyBangorUK
  2. 2.School of Biology and Environmental Science, Science West CentreUniversity College DublinDublin 4Ireland
  3. 3.Department of Geography and Environmental ManagementUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations