Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 185–200

Managing invasive crayfish: is there a hope?

  • Francesca Gherardi
  • Laura Aquiloni
  • Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
  • Elena Tricarico


Given that the impact exerted by non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS) is most often severe, can occur across many levels of ecological organization, and results in the loss of native crayfish populations, the Convention on Biological Diversity approach, as complemented by the European Strategy, is viewed as an excellent framework to be followed to prevent the introduction of NICS and to alleviate or eliminate the damage they inflict. Much effort should be directed to minimize the risks of intentional introductions, as in part done by the Council Regulation No. 708/07 in force in the European Union since 2009. However, this and other regulations are not well harmonized, for instance, with those concerning both the aquarium trade and the harvest of crayfish for human consumption. To make prevention more difficult, there are many records of illegal release of NICS into the wild and of their accidental introduction as undetected contaminants in batches of regulated fish species. As a consequence, it seems necessary that post-introduction mitigation and remediation protocols and processes, such as contingency plans, are always in place to enable rapid detection and early response in order to minimize and, ideally, annul the threats posed by NICS. The aim of this review paper is to offer a synthetic view of the different methods (mechanical removal, physical methods, biological control, biocides, and autocidal methods) proposed and adopted until now to control NICS with a discussion of their pitfalls and potentialities. A glimpse to the ongoing research in the matter will be also given.


Invasive non-indigenous crayfish Trapping Biological control Biocides Sex pheromones SMRT 


  1. Alderman DJ (1996) Geographical spread of bacterial and fungal diseases of crustaceans. In: Preventing the spread of aquatic animal diseases. Scientific and Technical Review, 15, June 1996. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France, pp 603–632Google Scholar
  2. Ameyaw-Akumfi CE, Hazlett BA (1975) Sex recognition in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Science 190:1225–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquiloni L, Gherardi F (2010) The use of sex pheromones for the control of invasive populations of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: a field study. Hydrobiologia 649:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aquiloni L, Becciolini A, Berti R, Porciani S, Trunfio C, Gherardi F (2009a) Managing invasive crayfish: using X-ray sterilization of males. Freshw Biol 54:1510–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquiloni L, Massolo A, Gherardi F (2009b) Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal. Naturwissenschaften 9:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aquiloni L, Brusconi S, Cecchinelli E, Tricarico E, Mazza G, Paglianti A, Gherardi F (2010) Biological control of invasive populations of crayfish: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a predator of Procambarus clarkii. Biol Invasions 12:3817–3824Google Scholar
  7. Asai N, Fusetani N, Matsugana S, Sasaki J (2000) Sex pheromones of the Hair Crab Erimacrus isenbeckii. Part 1. Isolation and structures of novel ceramides. Tetrahedron 56:9895–9899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakri A, Heather N, Hendrichs J, Ferris I (2005) Fifty years of radiation biology in entomology: lesson learned from IDIDAS. Ann Entomol Soc Am 98:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bechler DL, Deng X, McDonald B (1988) Interspecific communication between sympatric crayfish of the genus Procambarus (Decapoda, Astacidae). Crustaceana 54:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry FC, Breithaupt T (2008) Development of behavioural and physiological assays to assess discrimination of male and female odours in crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Behaviour 145:1427–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertolino S, Genovesi P (2003) Spread and attempted eradication of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy, and consequences for the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in Eurasia. Biol Conserv 109:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bills TD, Marking LL (1988) Control of nuisance populations of crayfish with traps and toxicants. Prog Fish Cult 50:103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blake MA, Hart PJB (1993) The behavioural responses of juvenile signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus to stimuli from perch and eels. Freshw Biol 29:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blake MA, Hart PJB (1995) The vulnerability of juvenile signal crayfish to perch and eel predation. Freshw Biol 33:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bomford M, O’Brien P (1995) Eradication or control for vertebrate pests? Wildl Soc Bull 23:249–255Google Scholar
  16. Cabral JA, Anastacio PM, Carvalho R, Marques JC (1997) A non harmful chemical method of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, population control and non target organisms problematics in the lower Modego River valley, Portugal. Freshw Crayfish 11:286–292Google Scholar
  17. Cornalia E (1860) Sulla malattia dei gamberi. Atti Soc Ital Sci Nat 2:334–336Google Scholar
  18. Cowan DF (1991) The role of olfaction in courtship behavior of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Biol Bull 181:402–307Google Scholar
  19. Cullen P, Copley L, McCarthy TK (2003) Observations on experimental trapping of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in a western Irish stream. In: Holdich DM, Sibley PJ (eds) Management and conservation of crayfish. Proceedings of a conference held on 7th November, 2002. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK, pp 152–158Google Scholar
  20. Curtis CF (1985) Genetic control of insect pests: growth industry or lead balloon? Biol J Linn Soc 26:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Das PK, Amalraj D (1997) Biological control of malaria vectors. Indian J Med Res 106:174–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Delbecque J-P, Bacqué-Cazenave J, Mini A, Cattaert D (2010) Control of aggressiveness and development by molting hormones (ecdysteroids) in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. European crayfish: Food, flagships & ecosystems Services, Potiers, France, 26–29 October, Abstract volume, p 70Google Scholar
  23. Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Muzquiz JL (2005) The use of the fungus Aphanomyces astaci for biological control of the spread of the invasive species Cherax destructor. Workshop biological invasions in inland waters, Florence, Italy, 5–7 May, Abstract volume, p 30Google Scholar
  24. Dunham PJ (1979) Mating in the American lobster: stage of molt cycle and sex pheromone. J Mar Behav Physiol 6:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunham DW, Oh JW (1992) Chemical sex discrimination in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: role of antennules. J Chem Ecol 18:2363–2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edsman L (2000) Crayfish conservation in Sweden, lessons to learn. In: Rogers D, Brickland J (eds) Proceedings of the crayfish conference. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK, pp 19–23Google Scholar
  27. Edsman L (2004) The Swedish story about import of live crayfish. Bull Fr Pêche Piscic 372–373:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. El-Sayed AM, Suckling DM, Wearing CH, Byers JA (2006) Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. J Econ Entomol 99:1550–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elvira B, Nicola GG, Almodovar A (1996) Pike and red swamp crayfish: a new case on predator-prey relationship between aliens in central Spain. J Fish Biol 48:437–446Google Scholar
  30. Esk Rivers and Fisheries Trust (2009) Biosecurity plan.
  31. European Parliament (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. 2000/60/EC. Official Journal, OJ L 327:1–82Google Scholar
  32. European Parliament (2007) Council regulation (EC) No 708/2007 of 11 June 2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture. Official Journal, OJ L 168:1–9Google Scholar
  33. European Parliament (2008) Commission regulation (EC) No 535/2008 of 13 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 708/2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture. Official Journal, OJ L 168:1–17Google Scholar
  34. Ewel JJ, O’Dowd DJ, Bergelson J, Daehler CC, D’Antonio CM, Gómez LD, Gordon DR, Hobbs RJ, Holt A, Hopper KR, Hughes CE, LaHart M, Leakey RRB, Lee WG, Loope LL, Lorence DH, Louda SM, Lugo AE, McEvoy PB, Richardson DM, Vitousek PM (1999) Deliberate introductions of species: research needs. Bioscience 49:619–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fjälling A (1995) Crayfish traps employed in Swedish fisheries. Freshw Crayfish 8:201–214Google Scholar
  36. Fonseca JC, Marques JC, Madeira VMC (1997) Oxygen uptake inhibition in Procambarus clarkii, red swamp crayfish, by biodegradable surfactants: an ecotechnological approach for population control in rice fields. Freshw Crayfish 11:235–242Google Scholar
  37. Freeman MA, Turnbull JF, Yeomans JF, Bean CW (2010) Prospects for management strategies of invasive crayfish populations with an emphasis on biological control. Aquatic Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 20:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frutiger A, Müller R (2002) Controlling unwanted Procambarus clarkii populations by fish predation. Freshw Crayfish 13:309–315Google Scholar
  39. García-Llorente M, Martín-López B, González JA, Alcorlo P, Montes C (2008) Social perceptions of the impacts and benefits of invasive alien species: implications for management. Biol Conserv 141:2969–2983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Genovesi P (2005) Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review. Biol Invasions 7:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Genovesi P, Shine C (2004) European strategy on invasive alien species. Nature and environment, No. 137. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Gherardi F (2007a) Understanding the impact of invasive crayfish. In: Gherardi F (ed) Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Invading Nature: Springer series in invasion ecology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 507–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gherardi F (2007b) Biological invasions in inland waters: an overview. In: Gherardi F (ed) Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Invading nature: Springer series in invasion ecology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gherardi F (2010) The invasive freshwater crayfish and fishes of the world. OIE Sci Tech Rev 29:241–254Google Scholar
  45. Gherardi F (2011) Public perception of invasive alien species in Mediterranean Europe. In: Rotherham ID, Lambert R (eds) Invasive and introduced plants and animals: human perceptions, attitudes and approaches to management, Earthscan, London, UK (in press)Google Scholar
  46. Gherardi F, Angiolini C (2007) Eradication and control of invasive species. In: Gherardi F, Corti C, Gualtieri M (eds) Biodiversity conservation and habitat management. Volume 2. Encyclopaedia of life support systems. Eolss Publishers/UNESCO, Oxford, pp 274–302Google Scholar
  47. Gherardi F, Souty-Grosset C, Vogt G, Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Crandall KA (2010) Infraorder Astacidea Latreille, 1802 P.P.: the freshwater crayfish, Chapter 67. In: Schram FR, von Vaupel Klein JC (eds) Treatise on zoology—Decapoda, vol 9A. Brill, Leiden, pp 269–423Google Scholar
  48. Glesson RA (1980) Pheromone communication in the reproductive behaviour of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 244:179–189Google Scholar
  49. Gowing H, Momot WT (1979) Impact of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) predation on the crayfish Orconectes virilis in three Michigan lakes. J Fish Res Bd Can 36:1191–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guan RZ, Wiles PR (1996) Growth, density and biomass of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, in a British lowland river. Aquat Living Resour 9:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamrin SF (1987) Seasonal crayfish activity as influenced by fluctuating water levels and presence of a fish predator. Holoartic Ecol 10:45–51Google Scholar
  52. Hardege JD, Jennings A, Hayden D, Müller CT, Pascoe D, Bentley MG, Clare AS (2002) Novel behavioural assay and partial purification of a female derived sex pheromone in Carcinus maenas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 244:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hart KM (1958) Pyrethrum in the disinfection of public water mains. Pyrethrum Post 4:8–12Google Scholar
  54. Håstein T, Gladhaug O (1973) The occurrence of the crayfish plague in Norway and attempts to prevent further spread of the disease. Freshw Crayfish 2:181–184Google Scholar
  55. Haya K (1989) Toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hazlett BA (1985) Chemical detection of sex and condition in the crayfish Orconectes virilis. J Chem Ecol 11:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hazlett BA (1999) Responses to multiple chemical cues by the crayfish Orconectes virilis. Behaviour 136:161–177Google Scholar
  58. Hein CL, Roth BM, Ives AR, Vander Zanden MJ (2006) Fish predation and trapping for rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) control: a whole-lake experiment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hein CL, Vander Zanden MJ, Magnuson JJ (2007) Intensive trapping and increased fish predation cause massive population decline of an invasive crayfish. Freshw Biol 52:1134–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Herborg LM, Rudnick DA, Siliang Y, Lodge DM, MacIsaac HJ (2007) Predicting the range of Chinese Mitten Crabs in Europe. Conserv Biol 21:1316–1323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hill AM, Lodge DM (1994) Diel changes in resource demand—competition and predation in species replacement among crayfishes. Ecology 75:2118–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hobbs HH III, Jass JP, Huner JV (1989) A review of global crayfish introductions with particular emphasis on two North American species (Decapoda, Cambaridae). Crustaceana 56:299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holdich DM, Domaniewski JCJ (1995) Studies on a mixed population of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus in England. Freshw Crayfish 10:37–45Google Scholar
  64. Holdich DM, Reeve ID (1991) Distribution of freshwater crayfish in the British Isles, with particular reference to crayfish plague, alien introductions and water quality. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 1:139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Holdich DM, Rogers WD, Reader JP (1995) Crayfish conservation. Final project record for National Rivers Authority R&D contract 378/N&Y. National Rivers Authority, BristolGoogle Scholar
  66. Holdich DM, Gydemo R, Rogers WD (1999) A review of possible methods for controlling nuisance populations of alien crayfish. In: Gherardi F, Holdich DM (eds) Crayfish in Europe as alien species. How to make the best of a bad situation? A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 245–270Google Scholar
  67. Huner JV (2002) Procambarus. In: Holdich DM (ed) Biology of freshwater crayfish. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 541–584Google Scholar
  68. Johnsen SI, Jansson T, Høye JK, Taugbøl T (2008) Vandringssperre for signalkreps i Buåa, Eda kommun, Sverige—Overvåking av signalkreps og krepsepest situasjonen. NINA Rapport 356, 15 s. ISBN 978-82-426-1920-4Google Scholar
  69. Keitt TH, Lewis MA, Holt RD (2001) Allee effects, invasion pinning, and species’ borders. Am Nat 157:203–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Keller RP, Frang K, Lodge DM (2008) Preventing the spread of invasive species: economic benefits of intervention guided by ecological predictions. Conserv Biol 22:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kerby JL, Riley SPD, Kats LB, Wilson P (2005) Barriers and flow as limiting factors in the spread of an invasive crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in southern California streams. Biol Conserv 126:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Knipling EF (1955) Possibilities of insect control or eradication through the use of sexually sterile males. J Econ Entomol 48:459–462Google Scholar
  73. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 298:1233–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kozak P, Policar T (2003) Practical elimination of signal crayfish (Pacifasticus leniusculus) from a pond. In: Holdich DM, Sibley PJ (eds) Management & conservation of crayfish. Proceedings of a conference held on 7th November, 2002. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK, pp 200–208Google Scholar
  75. Lance D, McInnis D, Rendon P, Jackson C (2000) Courtship among sterile and wild Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in field cages in Hawaii and Guatemala. Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:1179–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Laurent PJ (1988) Austropotamobius pallipes and A. torrentium, with observations on their interaction with other species in Europe. In: Holdich DM, Lowery RS (eds) Freshwater crayfish: biology, management and exploitation. Croom Helm (Chapman & Hall), London, pp 341–364Google Scholar
  77. Laurent PJ (1995) Eradication of unwanted crayfish species for astacological management purposes. Freshw Crayfish 8:121–133Google Scholar
  78. Lee N (2000) Effects of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation on the Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. PhD thesis, Louisiana State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  79. Lodge DM, Stein RA, Brown KM, Covich AP, Brönmark C, Garvey JE, Klosiewski SP (1998) Predicting impact of freshwater exotic species on native biodiversity: challenges in spatial scaling. Aust J Ecol 23:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lodge DM, Taylor CA, Holdich DM, Skurdal J (2000) Non-indigenous crayfishes threaten North American freshwater biodiversity: lessons from Europe. Fisheries 25:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lowery RS (1988) Growth, moulting and reproduction. In: Holdich DM, Lowery RS (eds) Freshwater crayfish: biology management and exploitation. Croom Helm (Chapman & Hall), London, pp 83–113Google Scholar
  82. Lux SA, Vilardi JC, Liedo P, Gaggl K, Calcagno GE, Munyiri FN, Vera MT, Manso F (2002) Effects of irradiation on the courtship behaviour of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) mass reared for the sterile insect technique. Florida Entomol 85:102–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. MacIsaac HJ, Borbely JVM, Muirhead JR, Graniero PA (2004) Backcasting and forecasting biological invasions of inland lakes. Ecol Appl 14:773–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Manchester SJ, Bullock J (2000) The impacts of non-native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. J Appl Ecol 37:845–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Martin P, Dorn NJ, Kawai T, van der Heiden C, Scholtz G (2010) The enigmatic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) is the parthenogenetic form of Procambarus fallax. Contrib Zool 79:107–118Google Scholar
  86. McLeese DW (1970) Detection of dissolved substances by the American lobster (Homarus americanus) and olfactory attraction between lobsters. J Fish Res Bd Can 27:1371–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Montes C, Bravo-Utrera MA, Baltanás A, Duarte C, Gutiérrez-Yurrita PJ (1993) Bases ecológicas para la gestion del Cangrejo Rojo de las Marismas en el Parque Nacional de Doñana. ICONA, Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, MadridGoogle Scholar
  88. Moorhouse TP, Macdonald DW (2010) Immigration rates of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in response to manual control measures. Freshw Biol. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02528.x
  89. Moyle PB, Light T (1996) Biological invasions of fresh water: empirical rules and assembly theory. Biol Conserv 78:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Neveu A (2001a) Les poissons carnassiers locaux peuvent-ils contenir l’expansion des écrevisses étrangères introduites? Efficacité de 3 espèces de poissons face à 2 espèces d’écrevisses dans des conditions expérimentales. Bull Fr Pêche Piscic 361:683–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Neveu A (2001b) Confrontation expérimentale entre des poissons omnivores autochtones (11 espèces) et des écrevisses étrangères introduites (2 espèces). Bull Fr Pêche Piscic 361:705–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nonnis Marzano F, Scalici M, Chiesa S, Gherardi F, Piccinini A, Gibertini G (2009) The first record of the marbled crayfish adds further threats to fresh waters in Italy. Aquat Invasions 4:401–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nyström P (1999) Ecological impact of introduced and native crayfish on freshwater communities: European perspectives. In: Gherardi F, Holdich DM (eds) Crayfish in Europe as alien species. How to make the best of a bad situation?. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 63–84Google Scholar
  94. Nyström P, Brönmark C, Granéli W (1996) Patterns in benthic food webs: a role for omnivorous crayfish? Freshw Biol 36:631–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Owen SF (2001) Meeting energy budgets by modulation of behaviour and physiology in the eel (Anguilla anguilla L). Comp Biochem Physiol Mol Integr Physiol 128:631–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peay S (2009) Invasive non-indigenous crayfish species in Europe: recommendations on managing them. Knowl Manag Aquat Ecosyst 394–395:03CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peay S, Hiley PD (2001) Eradication of alien crayfish. Phase II. Environment Agency Technical Report W1–037/TR1. Environ Agency, Bristol, p 118Google Scholar
  98. Peay S, Hiley PD, Collen P, Martin I (2006) Biocide treatment of ponds in Scotland to eradicate signal crayfish. Bull Fr Pêche Piscic 380–381:1363–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Perrow M, Leeming D, England J, Tomlinson M (2007) Life after low flow—ecological recovery of the River Misbourne. Brit Wildl 18:335–346Google Scholar
  100. Persson M, Cerenius L, Söderhäll K (1987) The influence of haemocyte number on the resistance of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus lenuisculus Dana, to the parasitic fungus Aphanomyces astaci. J Fish Dis 10:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rach JJ, Bills TD (1989) Crayfish control with traps and largemouth bass. Prog Fish Cult 51:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rees GH (1962) Effects of gamma radiation on two decapod crustaceans, Palaemonetes pugio and Uca pugnax. Chesap Sci 3:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rogers WD, Holdich DM, Carter E (1997) Crayfish eradication. Report for English Nature, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  104. Sandodden R, Johnsen SI (2010) Eradication of introduced signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus using the pharmaceutical BETAMAX VET®. Aquat Invasions 5:75–81Google Scholar
  105. Scalici M, Chiesa S, Gherardi F, Ruffini M, Gibertini G, Nonnis Marzano F (2009) The new threat to Italian inland waters from the alien crayfish “gang”: the Australian Cherax destructor Clark, 1936. Hydrobiologia 632:341–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sellars MJ, Preston NP (2005) Sexual sterilisation of harvest-size Penaeus japonicus (Bate) using ionising irradiation. Aquacult Res 36:1144–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Simberloff D (2009) We can eliminate invasions or live with them. Successful management projects. Biol Invasions 11:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Skurdal J, Qvenild T (1986) Growth, maturity and fecundity of Astacus astacus in Lake Steinsfjorden, S. E. Norway. Freshw Crayfish 6:182–186Google Scholar
  109. Souty-Grosset C, Holdich DM, Noel PY, Reynolds JD, Haffner P (eds) (2006) Atlas of crayfish in Europe. Collection Patrimoines Naturelles 64. Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, pp 188Google Scholar
  110. Stebbing PD, Watson GJ, Bentley MG, Fraser D, Jennings R, Rushton SP, Sibley PJ (2003) Reducing the threat: the potential use of pheromones to control invasive signal crayfish. Bull Fr Pêche Piscic 370–371:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stebbing PD, Watson GJ, Bentley MG, Fraser D, Jennings R, Rushton SP, Sibley PJ (2004) Evaluation of the capacity of pheromones for control of invasive non-native crayfish. English nature research reports No. 578. Engl Nat, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  112. Stein RA (1977) Selective predation, optimal foraging, and the predator-prey interaction between fish and crayfish. Ecology 58:1237–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stein RA, Magnuson JJ (1976) Behavioral response of crayfish to a fish predator. Ecology 57:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tricarico E, Vilizzi L, Gherardi F, Copp GH (2010) Calibration of FI-ISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-indigenous freshwater invertebrates. Risk Anal 30:285–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Twohey MB, Heinrich JW, Seelye JG, Fredricks KT, Bergstedt RA, Kaye CA, Scholefield RJ, McDonald RB, Christie GC (2003) The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management. J Great Lakes Res 29:410–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vander Zanden MJ, Hansen GJA, Higgins SN, Kornis MS (2010) A pound of prevention, plus a pound of cure: early detection and eradication of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J Great Lakes Res 36:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Verling E, Ruiz GM, Smith LD, Galil A, Miller AW, Murphy KR (2005) Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1249–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Waddy SL, Burridge LE, Hamilton MN, Mercer SM, Aiken DE, Haya K (2002) Emamectin benzoate induces molting in American lobster, Homarus americanus. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Westman K (1991) The crayfish fishery in Finland—its past, present and future. Finn Fish Res 12:187–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Westman K, Sumari O, Pursiainen M (1978) Electric fishing in sampling crayfish. Freshw Crayfish 4:251–255Google Scholar
  121. Westman K, Pursiainen M, Vilkman R (1979) A new folding trap model which prevents crayfish from escaping. Freshw Crayfish 4:235–242Google Scholar
  122. Williams T (1997) Killer weeds. Audubon 99:24–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesca Gherardi
    • 1
  • Laura Aquiloni
    • 1
  • Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
    • 2
  • Elena Tricarico
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica “Leo Pardi”Università degli Studi di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Departamento de MicologíaReal Jardín Botánico CSICMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations