Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors: a review



This review aims to determine how environmental characteristics of aquatic habitats rule species occurrence, life-history traits and community dynamics among aquatic plants, and if these particular adaptations and responses fit in with general predictions relating to abiotic factors and plant communities. The way key abiotic factors in aquatic habitats affect (1) plant life (recruitment, growth, and reproduction) and dispersal, and (2) the dynamics of plant communities is discussed. Many factors related to plant nutrition are rather similar in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g. light, temperature, substrate nutrient content, CO2 availability) or differ markedly in intensity (e.g. light), variations (e.g. temperature) or in their effective importance for plant growth (e.g. nutrient content in substrate and water). Water movements (water-table fluctuations or flow velocity) have particularly drastic consequences on plants because of the density of water leading to strong mechanical strains on plant tissues, and because dewatering leads to catastrophic habitat modifications for aquatic plants devoid of cuticle and support tissues. Several abiotic factors that affect aquatic plants, such as substrate anoxia, inorganic carbon availability or temperature, may be modified by global change. This in turn may amplify competitive processes, and lead ultimately to the dominance of phytoplankton and floating species. Conserving the diversity of aquatic plants will rely on their ability to adapt to new ecological conditions or escape through migration.


Softwater ecosystems Macrophyte Nutrient Disturbances Life-history traits Stress factors 


  1. Acosta LW, Sabbatini MR, Hernandez LF, Fernandez OA (1998) Regeneration of reproductive structures of Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia maritima, Zannichellia palustris and Chara contraria: Effect of temperature. Phyton Int J Exp Bot 63:167–178Google Scholar
  2. Amoros C, Bornette G (1999) Antagonist and cumulative effects of connectivity: a predictive model based on aquatic vegetation in riverine wetlands. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Suppl 115(3):311–327Google Scholar
  3. Anderson R, Kalff J (1988) Submerged aquatic macrophytes biomass in relation to sediment characteristics in ten temperate lakes. Freshw Biol 19:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arts GHP (2002) Deterioration of Atlantic soft water macrophyte communities by acidification, eutrophication and alkalinisation. Aquat Bot 73:373–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arts GHP, Van der Velde G, Roelofs JGM, Van Swaay CAM (1990) Successional changes in the soft water macrophyte vegetation of (sub) Atlantic, sandy, lowland regions during this Century. Freshw Biol 24:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin DS, Mitchell AM (2000) The effects of drying and re-flooding on the sediment and soil nutrient dynamics of lowland river-floodplain systems: a synthesis. Regul Rivers Res Manag 16:457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker T, Hatton K, O’Connor M, Connor L, Moss B (2008) Effects of nitrate load on submerged plant biomass and species richness: results of a mesocosm experiment. Fundam Appl Limnol 173:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barko JW, Smart RM (1986) Sediment-related mechanisms of growth limitation in submersed macrophytes. Ecology 67:1328–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barko JW, Adams MS, Clesceri NL (1986) Environmental factors and their consideration in the management of submersed aquatic vegetation: a review. J Aquat Plant Manag 24:1–10Google Scholar
  10. Barrat-Segretain MH (1996) Germination and colonisation dynamics of Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. in a former river channel. Aquat Bot 55:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett SCH, Eckert CG, Husband BC (1993) Evolutionary processes in aquatic plant populations. Aquat Bot 44:105–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhowmik NG, Adams JR (1989) Successional changes in habitat caused by sedimentation in navigation pools. Hydrobiologia 176/177:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biehle G, Speck T, Spatz HC (1998) Hydrodynamics and biomechanics of the submerged water moss Fontinalis antipyretica—a comparison of specimens from habitats with different flow velocities. Botanica Acta 111:42–50Google Scholar
  14. Bini LM, Thomaz SM, Murphy KJ, Camargo AFM (1999) Aquatic macrophyte distribution in relation to water and sediment conditions in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 415:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blindow I (1992) Decline of charophytes during eutrophication: comparison with angiosperms. Freshw Biol 28:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blokhina O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt KV (2003) Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann Bot 91:179–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boedeltje G, Bakker JP, Ten Brinke A, van Groenendael JM, Soesbergen M (2004) Dispersal phenology of hydrochorous plants in relation to discharge, seed release time and buoyancy of seeds: the flood pulse concept supported. J Ecol 92:786–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boedeltje G, Smolders AJR, Lamers LPM, Roelofs JGM (2005) Interactions between sediment propagule banks and sediment nutrient fluxes explain floating plant dominance in stagnant shallow waters. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 162:349–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boeger MRT, Poulson ME (2003) Morphological adaptations and photosynthetic rates of amphibious Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (Scrophulariaceae) under different flow regimes. Aquat Bot 75:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonifas KD, Walters DT, Cassman KG, Lindquist JL (2005) Nitrogen supply affects root:shoot ratio in corn and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Sci 53:670–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bonis A, Lepart J, Grillas P (1995) Seed bank dynamics and coexistence of annual macrophytes in a temporary and variable habitat. Oikos 74:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bornette G, Amoros C (1991) Aquatic vegetation and hydrology of a braided river floodplain. J Veg Sci 2:497–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bornette G, Large ARG (1995) Groundwater-surface water ecotones at the upstream part of confluences in former river channels. Hydrobiologia 310:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bornette G, Puijalon S (2009) Macrophytes: ecology of aquatic plants. Encyclopedia of life sciences (ELS). Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  25. Bornette G, Amoros C, Castella C, Beffy JL (1994a) Succession and fluctuation in the aquatic vegetation of two former Rhône River channels. Vegetatio 110:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bornette G, Amoros C, Chessel D (1994b) Effect of allogenic processes on successional rates in former river channels. J Veg Sci 5:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bornette G, Amoros C, Lamouroux N (1998) Aquatic plant diversity in riverine wetlands: the role of connectivity. Freshw Biol 39:267–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bornette G, Piégay H, Citterio A, Amoros C, Godreau V (2001) Aquatic plant diversity in four river floodplains: a comparison at two hierarchical levels. Biodivers Conserv 10:1683–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boston HL, Adams MS, Madsen JD (1989) Photosynthetic strategies and productivity in aquatic systems. Freshw Biol 34:27–57Google Scholar
  30. Bowes G, Rao SK, Estavillo GM, Reiskind JB (2002) C-4 mechanisms in aquatic angiosperms: comparisons with terrestrial C-4 systems. Funct Plant Biol 29:379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boylen CW, Sheldon RB (1976) Submergent macrophytes: growth under winter ice cover. Science 194:841–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bravard JP, Amoros C, Pautou G (1986) Impact of civil engineering works on the successions of communities in a fluvial system. Oikos 47:92–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brock TCM, Van der Velde G, Van de Steeg HM (1987) The effects of extreme water level fluctuations on the wetland vegetation of a Nymphaeid-dominated oxbow lake in the Netherlands. Arch Hydrobiol 27:57–73Google Scholar
  34. Brock TCM, Mielo H, Oostermeijer G (1989) On the life cycle and germination of Hottonia palustris L. in a wetland forest. Aquat Bot 35:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brock MA, Nielsen DL, Shiel RJ, Green JD, Langley JD (2003) Drought and aquatic community resilience: the role of eggs and seeds in sediments of temporary wetlands. Freshw Biol 48:1207–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brown JS, Eckert CG (2005) Evolutionary increase in sexual and clonal reproductive capacity during biological invasion in an aquatic plant Butomus umbellatus (Butomacées). Am J Bot 92:495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bruni NC, Young JP, Dengler NG (1996) Leaf developmental plasticity of Ranunculus flabellaris in response to terrestrial and submerged environments. Can J Bot 74:823–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cao T, Xie P, Ni LY, Wu AP, Zhang M, Wu SK, Smolders AJP (2007) The role of NH4+ toxicity in the decline of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans in lakes of the Yangtze River basin, China. Mar Freshw Res 58:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Caraco N, Cole J, Findlay S, Wigand C (2006) Vascular plants as engineers of oxygen in aquatic systems. Bioscience 56:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Carbiener R, Trémolières M, Mercier JL, Ortscheit A (1990) Aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators of eutrophication in calcareous oligosaprobe stream waters (Upper Rhine plain, Alsace). Vegetatio 86:71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Carpenter SR, Lodge DM (1986) Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquat Bot 26:341–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Casanova MT, Brock MA (2000) How do depth, duration and frequency of flooding influence the establishment of wetland plant communities? Plant Ecol 147:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cellot B, Mouillot F, Henry CP (1998) Flood drift and propagule bank of aquatic macrophytes in a riverine wetland. J Veg Sci 9:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Clarke E, Baldwin AH (2002) Response of wetland plants to ammonia and water level. Ecol Eng 18:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Combroux I, Bornette G (2004) Effects of two types of disturbance on seed-bank and their relationship with established vegetation. J Veg Sci 15:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Crossley MN, Dennison WC, Williams RR, Wearing AH (2002) The interaction of water flow and nutrients on aquatic plant growth. Hydrobiologia 489:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cushing CE, Allan JD (2001) Streams: their ecology and life. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  48. Dale HM (1985) Temperature and light: the determining factors in maximum depth distribution of aquatic macrophytes in Ontario. Can Hydrobiol 133:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Declerck S, Vandekerkhove J, Johansson L, Muylaert K, Conde-Porcuna JM, Van der Gucht K, Perez-Martinez C, Lauridsen T, Schwenk K, Zwart G, Rommens W, Lopez-Ramos J, Jeppesen E, Vyverman W, Brendonck L, De Meester L (2005) Multi-group biodiversity in shallow lakes along gradients of phosphorus and water plant cover. Ecology 86:1905–1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Denny M (1988) Biology and the mechanics of the wave-swept environment. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  51. Doyle RD (2001) Effects of waves on the early growth of Vallisneria americana. Freshw Biol 46:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dvoraki J, Bestz EPH (1982) Macro-invertebrate communities associated with the macrophytes of Lake Vechten: structural and functional relationships. Hydrobiologia 95:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Engelhardt KAM, Ritchie ME (2001) Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services. Nature 441:687–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Furey PC, Nordin RN, Mazumder A (2004) Water level drawdown affects physical and biogeochemical properties of littoral sediments of a reservoir and a natural lake. Lake Reserv Manag 20:280–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gessner F (1955) Hydrobotanik, Die Physiologischen Grundlagen der Pflanzenverbreitung in Wasser. I. Energiehaushalt. Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verlag der WissenschaftenGoogle Scholar
  56. Gessner F (1959). Hydrobotanik. Die Physiologischen Grundlagen der Pflanzenverbreitung in Wasser. II. Energiehaushalt. Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verlag der WissenschaftenGoogle Scholar
  57. Greulich S, Bornette G (1999) Competitive abilities and related strategies in four aquatic plant species from an intermediately disturbed habitat. Freshw Biol 41:493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grime JP (2002) Plant strategies, vegetation processes, and ecosystem properties. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  59. Grimoldi AA, Insausti P, Roitman GG, Soriano A (1999) Responses to flooding intensity in Leontodon taraxacoides. New Phytol 141:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gross EM, Johnson RL, Hairston NG Jr (2001) Experimental evidence for changes in submersed macrophyte species composition caused by the herbivore Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera). Oecologia 127:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Handley RJ, Davy AJ (2002) Seedling root establishment may limit Najas marina L. to sediments of low cohesive strength. Aquat Bot 73:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hanley ME, Lamont BB (2002) Relationships between physical and chemical attributes of congeneric seedlings: how important in seedling defence? Funct Ecol 16:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hartig EK, Grozev O, Rosenzweig C (1997) Climate change, agriculture and wetlands in Eastern Europe: vulnerability, adaptation and policy. Clim Chang 36:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harwell MC, Havens KE (2003) Experimental studies on the recovery potential of submerged aquatic vegetation after flooding and desiccation in a large subtropical lake. Aquat Bot 77:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Haslam SM (1978) River plants. The macrophytic vegetation of watercourses. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Havens KE, Sharfstein B, Brady MA, East TL, Harwell MC, Maki RP, Rodusky AJ (2004) Recovery of submerged plants from high water stress in a large subtropical lake in Florida, USA. Aquat Bot 78:67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henry CP, Amoros C, Bornette G (1996) Species traits and recolonization processes after flood disturbances in riverine macrophytes. Vegetatio 122:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hill NM, Keddy PA, Wisheu IC (1998) A hydrological model for predicting the effects of dams on the shoreline vegetation of lakes and reservoirs. Environ Manag 22:723–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Holmes NTH (1999) Recovery of headwater stream flora following the 1989–1992 groundwater drought. Hydrol Process 13:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hupp CR, Woodside MD, Yanosky TM (1993) Sediment and trace element trapping in a forested wetland, Chickahominy River, Virginia. Wetlands 13:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hussner A (2009) Growth and photosynthesis of four invasive aquatic plant species in Europe. Weed Res 49:506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hussner A, Losch R (2005) Alien aquatic plants in a thermally abnormal river and their assembly to neophyte-dominated macrophyte stands (River Erft, Northrhine-Westphalia). Limnologica 35:18–30Google Scholar
  73. Huston M (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Nat 113:81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Huston M, Smith T (1987) Plant succession: life history and competition. Am Nat 130:168–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Idestam-Almquist J, Kautsky L (1995) Plastic responses in morphology of Potamogeton pectinatus L. to sediment and above-sediment conditions at two sites in the northern Baltic proper. Aquat Bot 52:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. International Panel of Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  77. James WF, Barko JW, Eakin HL (2004) Impacts of sediment dewatering and rehydration on sediment nitrogen concentration and macrophyte growth. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. James C, Fisher J, Russell V, Collings S, Moss B (2005) Nitrate availability and hydrophyte species richness in shallow lakes. Freshw Biol 50:1049–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jampeetong A, Brix H (2009) Effects of NH4 + concentration on growth, morphology and NH4+ uptake kinetics of Salvinia natans. Ecol Eng 35:695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jansson R, Laudon H, Johansson E (2007) The importance of groundwater discharge for plant species number in riparian zones. Ecology 88:131–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M, Kirsten C (1998) The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Johansson ME, Nilsson C, Nilsson E (1996) Do rivers function as corridors for plant dispersal? J Veg Sci 7:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Johnson WC (1994) Woodland expansion in the Platte River, Nebraska, patterns and causes. Ecol Monogr 64:45–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jones JI, Young JO, Eaton JW, Moss B (2002) The influence of nutrient loading, dissolved inorganic carbon and higher trophic levels on the interaction between submerged plants and periphyton. J Ecol 90:12–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (1993) Herbaceous plants of the Amazon floodplain near Manaus—species diversity and adaptations to the flood pulse. Amazoniana-Limnologia Et Oecologia Regionalis Systemae Fluminis Amazonas 12:467–484Google Scholar
  86. Kalliola R, Salo J, Puhakka M, Rajasilta M (1991) New site formation and colonizing vegetation in primary succession on the western Amazon floodplains. J Ecol 79:877–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Karjalainen H, Stefansdottir G, Tuominen L, Kairesalo T (2001) Do submersed plants enhance microbial activity in sediment? Aquat Bot 69:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kautsky L (1988) Life strategies of aquatic soft bottom macrophytes. Oikos 53:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Keddy P, Fraser LH (2000) Four general principles for the management and conservation of wetlands in large lakes: the role of water levels, nutrients, competitive hierarchies and centrifugal organization. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 5:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Keeley JE (1998) CAM photosynthesis in submerged aquatic plants. Bot Rev 64:121–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Khan FA, Ansari AA (2005) Eutrophication: an ecological vision. Bot Rev 71:449–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Koch EW (2001) Beyond light: physical, geological, and geochemical parameters as possible submersed aquatic vegetation habitat requirements. Estuaries 24:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koehl MAR (1984) How do benthic organisms withstand moving water? Am Zool 24:57–70Google Scholar
  94. Kohler A (1975) Submerse Makrophyten und ihre Gesellschaften als Indikatoren der Gewässerbelastung. Beiträge Naturkundlischen Forschung in Suedwestdeutschand Beihefte 34:149–159Google Scholar
  95. Kohler A, Brinkmeier R, Vollrath H (1974) Verbreitung und Indikatorwert der submersen Makrophyten in den Fließgewässern der Friedberger Au. Bericht der bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zür Erforschung der heimischen Flora 45:5–36Google Scholar
  96. Korner S (2001) Development of submerged macrophytes in shallow Lake Muggelsee (Berlin, Germany) before and after its switch to the phytoplankton-dominated state. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 152:395–409Google Scholar
  97. Lacoul P, Freedman B (2006) Relationships between aquatic plants and environmental factors along a steep Himalayan altitudinal gradient. Aquat Bot 84:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lamers LPM, Smolders AJP, Roelofs JGM (2002) The restoration of fens in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478:103–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lauridsen TL, Jeppesen E, Andersen FO (1993) The colonisation of submerged macrophytes in shallow fish manipulated lake Vaeng—impact of sediment composition and waterfowl grazing. Aquat Bot 46:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lehmann A, Castella E, Lachavanne JB (1997) Morphological traits and spatial heterogeneity of aquatic plants along sediment and depth gradients, Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Aquat Bot 55:281–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lenssen JPM, Menting FBJ, Van der Putten WH, Blom CWPM (1999) Effects of sediment type and water level on biomass production of wetland plant species. Aquat Bot 64:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lenssen JPM, Menting FBJ, Van den Putten WH, Blom CWPM (2000) Vegetative reproduction by species with different adaptations to shallow-flooded habitats. New Phytol 145:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Litav M, Lehrer Y (1978) Effects of ammonium in water on Potamogeton lucens. Aquat Bot 5:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Liu GH, Li W, Zhou J, Liu WZ, Yang D, Davy AJ (2006a) How does the propagule bank contribute to cyclic vegetation change in a lakeshore marsh with seasonal drawdown? Aquat Bot 84:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Liu GH, Li W, Li EH, Yuan LY, Davy AJ (2006b) Landscape-scale variation in the seed banks of floodplain wetlands with contrasting hydrology in China. Freshw Biol 51:1862–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Maberly SC, Madsen TV (1998) Affinity for CO2 in relation to the ability of freshwater macrophytes to use HCO3 . Funct Ecol 12:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Madsen TV, Cedergreen N (2002) Sources of nutrients to rooted submerged macrophytes growing in a nutrient-rich stream. Freshw Biol 47:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Madsen TV, Sand-Jensen K, Beer S (1993) Comparison of photosynthetic performance and carboxylation capacity in a range of aquatic macrophytes of different growth forms. Aquat Bot 44:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Madsen JD, Chambers PA, James WF, Koch EW, Westlake DF (2001) The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 444:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Madsen TV, Olesen B, Bagger J (2002) Carbon acquisition and carbon dynamics by aquatic isoetids. Aquat Bot 73:351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mäemets H, Freiberg L (2007) Coverage and depth limits of macrophytes as tools for classification of lakes. Proc Estonian Acad Sci Biol Ecol 56:124–140Google Scholar
  112. Marion L, Paillisson J-M (2002) A mass balance assessment of the contribution of floating-leaved macrophytes in nutrient stocks in an eutrophic macrophyte-dominated lake. Aquat Bot 75:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Martín J, Luque-Larena JJ, López P (2005) Factors affecting escape behavior of Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi). Can J Zool 83:1189–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Martin-Closas C, Wojcicki JJ, Fonolla L (2006) Fossil charophytes and hydrophytic angiosperms as indicators of lacustrine trophic change. A case study in the Miocene of Catalonia (Spain). Criyptogamie-Algologie 27:357–379Google Scholar
  115. Matthews D (2006) Global change: the water cycle freshens up. Nature 439:793–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. McFarland DG, Barko JW, McCreary NJ (1992) Effects of sediment fertility and initial plant-density on growth of Hydrilla verticillata (LF) Royle and Potamogeton nodosus Poiret. J Freshw Ecol 7:191–200Google Scholar
  117. Mckee D, Hatton K, Eaton JW, Atkinson D, Atherton A, Harvey I, Moss B (2002) Effects of simulated climate warming on macrophytes in freshwater microcosm communities. Aquat Bot 74:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Middelboe AL, Markager S (1997) Depth limits and minimum light requirements of freshwater macrophytes. Freshw Biol 37:553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Millenium-Ecosystem-Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water. Synthesis. World Resource Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  120. Miller A, Cramer M (2005) Root nitrogen acquisition and assimilation. Plant Soil 274:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mooij WM, Hulsmann S, Domis LND, Nolet BA, Bodelier PLE, Boers PCM, Pires LMD, Gons HJ, Ibelings BW, Noordhuis R, Portielje R, Wolfstein K, Lammens E (2005) The impact of climate change on lakes in the Netherlands: a review. Aquat Ecol 39:381–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Moore PA, Reddy KR, Graetz DA (1992) Water quality-nutrient transformations in sediments as influenced by oxygen supply. J Environ Qual 21:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mulholland PJ, Best GR, Coutant CC, Hornberger GM, Meyer JL, Robinson PJ, Stenberg JR, Turner RE, VeraHerrera F, Wetzel RG (1997) Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Hydrol Process 11:949–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mulhouse JM, De Steven D, Lide RF, Sharitz RR (2005) Effects of dominant species on vegetation change in Carolina bay wetlands following a multi-year drought. J Torrey Bot Soc 132:411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Murphy KJ (1988) Aquatic weed problems and their management: a review I. The worldwide scale of the aquatic weed problem. Crop Prot 7:232–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Murphy KJ (2002) Plant communities and plant diversity in softwater lakes of Northern Europe. Aquat Bot 73:287–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Nielsen SL, Sand-Jensen K (1993) Photosynthetic implications of heterophylly in Batrachium peltatum (Schrank) Presl. Aquat Bot 44:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. O’Hare MT, Hutchinson KA, Clarke RT (2007) The drag and reconfiguration experienced by five macrophytes from a lowland river. Aquat Bot 86:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Odland A (1997) Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway. Aquat Bot 59:45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Olde Venterink H, Vermaat JE, Pronk M, Wiegman F, van der Lee GEM, van den Hoorn MW, Higler LWG, Vehoeven JTA (2006) Importance of sediment deposition and denitrification for nutrient retention in floodplain wetlands. Appl Veg Sci 9:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Olesen B, Madsen TV (2000) Growth and physiological acclimation to temperature and inorganic carbon availability by two submerged aquatic macrophyte species, Callitriche cophocarpa and Elodea canadensis. Funct Ecol 14:252–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ottosen LDM, Risgaard-Petersen N, Nielsen LP (1999) Direct and indirect measurements of nitrification and denitrification in the rhizosphere of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat Microb Ecol 19:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pagano AM, Titus JE (2007) Submersed macrophyte growth at low pH: carbon source influences response to dissolved inorganic carbon enrichment. Freshw Biol 52:2412–2420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Pant HK (2007) Nonlinear effects of climate change on phosphorus stability in wetlands: concept and estimation. J Food Agric Environ 5:295–301Google Scholar
  135. Parsons M, McLoughlin CA, Kotschy KA, Rogers KH, Rountree MW (2005) The effects of extreme floods on the biophysical heterogeneity of river landscapes. Front Ecol Environ 3:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pasternack GB, Brush GS (2001) Seasonal Variations in Sedimentation and organic content in five plant associations on a Chesapeake Bay tidal freshwater delta. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 53:93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pezeshki SR (2001) Wetland plant responses to soil flooding. Environ Exp Bot 46:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pilon J, Santamaria L (2001) Seasonal acclimation in the photosynthetic and respiratory temperature responses of three submerged freshwater macrophyte species. New Phytol 151:659–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pip E, Robinson GGT (1984) A comparison of algal periphyton composition on eleven species of submerged macrophytes. Aquat Ecol 18:109–118Google Scholar
  140. Poff NL, Ward JV (1990) Physical habitat template of lotic systems: recovery in the context of historical pattern of spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Environ Manage 14:629–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pollock MM, Naiman RJ, Hanley TA (1998) Plant species richness in riparian wetlands—a test of biodiversity theory. Ecology 79:94–105Google Scholar
  142. Portnoy JW (1991) Summer oxygen depletion in a diked New-England estuary. Estuaries 14:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Puijalon S, Sagnes P, Bornette G (2005) Adaptations to increasing hydraulic stress: morphology, hydrodynamics and fitness of two higher aquatic plant species. J Exp Bot 56:777–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Puijalon S, Léna JP, Rivière N, Champagne JY, Rostan JC, Bornette G (2008) Phenotypic plasticity in response to mechanical stress: hydrodynamic performance and fitness of 4 aquatic plant species. New Phytol 177:907–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rascio N (2002) The underwater life of secondarily aquatic plants: some problems and solutions. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21:401–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ray AM, Rebertus AJ, Ray HL (2001) Macrophyte succession in Minnesota beaver ponds. Can J Bot 79:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Redding TE, Devito KJ (2006) Particle densities of wetland soils in northern Alberta, Canada. Can J Soil Sci 86:57–60Google Scholar
  148. Riis T, Hawes I (2002) Relationships between water level fluctuations and vegetation diversity in shallow water of New Zealand lakes. Aquat Bot 74:133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Robach F, Thiébaut G, Trémolières M, Muller S (1996) A reference system for continental running waters: plant communities as bioindicators of increasing eutrophication in alkaline and acidic waters in north-east France. Hydrobiologia 340:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Roberts E, Kroker J, Korner S, Nicklisch A (2003) The role of periphyton during the re-colonization of a shallow lake with submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 506:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rosset V, Lehmann A, Oertli B (2010) Warmer and richer? Predicting the impact of climate warming on species richness in small temperate waterbodies. Glob Chang Biol 16:2376–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rostan JC, Amoros C, Juget J (1987) The organic content of the surficial sediment : a method for the study of ecosystems development in abandoned river channels. Hydrobiologia 148:45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rybicki NB, Carter V (1986) Effect of sediment depth and sediment type on the survival of Vallisneria americana Michx grown from tubers. Aquat Bot 24:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sajna N, Haler M, Skornik S, Kaligaric M (2007) Survival and expansion of Pistia stratiotes L. in a thermal stream in Slovenia. Aquat Bot 87:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sakura Y (1993) Groundwater flow estimated from temperatures in the Yonezawa basin, northeast Japan. Int Assoc Hydrogeol Publ 215:161–170Google Scholar
  156. Sand-Jensen K (2003) Drag and reconfiguration of freshwater macrophytes. Freshw Biol 48:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sand-Jensen K, Pedersen O (1999) Velocity gradients and turbulence around macrophyte stands in streams. Freshw Biol 42:315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Santamaria L (2002) Why are most aquatic plants widely distributed? Dispersal, clonal growth and small-scale heterogeneity in a stressful environment. Acta Oecologica 23:137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Santamaria L, van Vierssen W (1997) Photosynthetic temperature responses of fresh- and brackish-water macrophytes: a review. Aquat Bot 58:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Santamaria L, Figuerola J, Pilon JJ, Mjelde M, Green AJ, De Boer T, King RA, Gornall RJ (2003) Plant performance across latitude: the role of plasticity and local adaptation in an aquatic plant. Ecology 84:2454–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sawada M, Viau AE, Gajewski K (2003) The biogeography of aquatic macrophytes in North America since the Last Glacial Maximum. J Biogeogr 30:999–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Scheffer M, Hosper SH, Meijer ML, Moss B, Jeppesen E (1993) Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol Evol 8:175–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schippers P, Vermaat JE, de Klein J, Mooij WM (2004) The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide elevation on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. Ecosystems 7:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Schneider S (2007) Macrophyte trophic indicator values from a European perspective. Limnologica 37:281–289Google Scholar
  165. Schutten J (2005) Biomechanical limitations on macrophytes in shallow lakes. Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  166. Schutten J, Dainty J, Davy AJ (2005) Root anchorage and its significance for submerged plants in shallow lakes. J Ecol 93:556–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schwarz AM, Hawes I (1997) Effects of changing water clarity on characean biomass and species composition in a large oligotrophic lake. Aquat Bot 56:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schwarz WL, Malanson GP, Weirich FH (1996) Effect of landscape position on the sediment chemistry of abandoned-channel wetlands. Landsc Ecol 11:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sculthorpe CD (1967) The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  170. Sheldon RB, Boylen CW (1977) Maximum depth inhabited by aquatic vascular plants. Am Midl Nat 97:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Smith FA, Walker NA (1980) Photosynthesis by aquatic plants: effects of unstirred layers in relation to assimilation of CO2 and HCO3 and to carbon isotopic discrimination. New Phytol 86:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Smits AJM, van Avesaath PH, van der Velde G (1990) Germination requirements and seed-banks of some nymphaeid macrophytes: Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze. Freshw Biol 24:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Smolders AJP, Lucassen ECHET, Roelofs JGM (2002) The isoetid environment: biogeochemistry and threats. Aquat Bot 73:325–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Smolders AJP, Lamers LPM, Lucassen ECHET, van der Velde G, Roelofs JGM (2006) Internal eutrophication: how it works and what to do about it—a review. Chem Ecol 22:93–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sorrell BK, Mendelssohn IA, McKee KL, Woods RA (2000) Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: a modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution. Ann Bot 86:675–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sousa WP (1984) The role of disturbance in natural communities. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 15:353–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sparks RE, Bayley PB, Kohler SL, Osborne LL (1990) Disturbance and recovery of large floodplain rivers. Environ Manag 14:699–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Spence DHN (1982) The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. Adv Ecol Res 12:37–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Stansfield JH, Perrow MR, Tench LD, Jowitt AJD, Taylor AAL (1997) Submerged macrophytes as refuges for grazing Cladocera against fish [-3pt]predation: observations on seasonal changes in relation to macrophyte cover and predation pressure. Hydrobiologia 342–343:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Strand JA, Weisner SEB (2001) Morphological plastic responses to water depth and wave exposure in an aquatic plant (Myriophyllum spicatum). J Ecol 89:166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Stroh CL, De Steven D, Guntenspergen GR (2008) Effect of climate fluctuations on long-term vegetation dynamics in Carolina Bay wetlands. Wetlands 28:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Szmeja J (1987) The ecology of Lobelia dortmanna L. 3. The plasticity of individuals along a gradient of increasing depth in oligotrophic lakes. Ekologia Polska-Polish J Ecol 35:545–558Google Scholar
  183. Szmeja J, Bazydlo E (2005) The effect of water conditions on the phenology and age structure of Luronium natans (L.) raf. populations. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 74:253–262Google Scholar
  184. Titus JE, Sullivan PG (2001) Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth. Am J Bot 88:1469–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tockner K, Stanford JA (2002) Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends. Environ Conserv 29:308–330Google Scholar
  186. Ueno O (2001) Environmental regulation of C-3 and C-4 differentiation in the amphibious sedge Eleocharis vivipara. Plant Physiol 127:1524–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Usherwood JR, Ennos AR, Ball DJ (1997) Mechanical adaptations in terrestrial and aquatic buttercups to their respective environments. J Exp Bot 48:1469–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Van den Brink FWB, De Leuw JPHM, Van der Velde G, Verheggen GM (1993) Impact of hydrology on the chemistry and phytoplankton development in floodplain lakes along the lower Rhine and Meuse. Biogeochemistry 19:103–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Van der Valk AG (2005) Water level fluctuations in North American prairie wetlands. Hydrobiologia 539:171–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Van der Valk AG, Davis CB (1979) A reconstruction of the recent vegetational history of a prairie marsh, Eagle Lake, Iowa, from its seed bank. Aquat Bot 6:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. van Geest GJ, Wolters H, Roozen FCJM, Coops H, Roijackers RMM, Buijse AD, Scheffer M (2005) Water-level fluctuations affect macrophyte richness in floodplain lakes. Hydrobiologia 539:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. van Ginkel LC, Bowes G, Reiskind JB, Prins HBA (2001) A CO2-flux mechanism operating via pH-polarity in Hydrilla verticillata leaves with C-3 and C-4 photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 68:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Vermaat JE, Santamaria L, Roos PJ (2000) Water flow across and sediment trapping in submerged macrophyte beds of contrasting growth form. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 148:549–562Google Scholar
  194. Vestergaard O, Sand-Jensen K (2000) Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes. Aquat Bot 67:85–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Vogel S (1984) Drag and flexibility in sessile organisms. Am Zool 24:37–44Google Scholar
  196. Vogel S (1994) Life in moving fluids: the physical biology of flow. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  197. Ward JV, Tockner K (2001) Biodiversity: towards a unifying theme for river ecology. Freshw Biol 46:807–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Weisner SEB, Strand JA, Sandsten H (1997) Mechanisms regulating abundance of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes. Oecologia 109:592–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wells CL, Pigliucci M (2000) Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: the case of heterophylly in aquatic plants. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 3:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Weltzin JL, Bridgham SD, Pastor J, Chen J, Harth C (2003) Potential effects of warming and drying on peatland plant community composition. Glob Chang Biol 9:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. White PS, Jentsch A (2001) The search for generality in studies of disturbance and ecosystem dynamics. Prog Bot 62:399–450Google Scholar
  202. White PS, Pickett STA (1985). Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: an introduction. In: Pickett STA, White PS (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press Inc., Orlando, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  203. Wisheu IC, Keddy PA (1992) Competition and centrifugal organization of plant communities: theory and tests. J Veg Sci 3:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Xing Y, Xie P, Yang H, Wu A, Ni L (2006) The change of gaseous carbon fluxes following the switch of dominant producers from macrophytes to algae in a shallow subtropical lake of China. Atmos Environ 40:8034–8043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Xiong S, Nilsson C, Johansson ME, Jansson R (2001) Responses of riparian plants to accumulation of silt and plant litter: the importance of plant traits. J Veg Sci 12:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNRSUniversity of LyonFrance
  2. 2.UMR CNRS 5023 “Ecology of Fluvial Ecosystems”Université Lyon 1Villeurbanne CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations