Advertisement

Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp 97–115 | Cite as

Contrasting responses of dimictic and polymictic lakes to environmental change: a spatial and temporal study

  • Zofia Ecaterina Taranu
  • Dörte Köster
  • Roland I. Hall
  • Theo Charette
  • Francine Forrest
  • Les C. Cwynar
  • Irene Gregory-Eaves
Research Article

Abstract

Although comparative analyses between dimictic and polymictic lakes have noted the key role of mixing regime in governing water quality, limnologists have historically focused on dimictic lakes, leaving polymictic lakes relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated whether the effects of agricultural development on water quality differed between dimictic and polymictic lakes in a naturally nutrient-rich region of Alberta, Canada. Through a spatial limnological analysis of 36 sites, we found that the relationship between surface water total phosphorus concentration and the percent of agriculture (% Agr) in the catchments differed between dimictic and polymictic lakes, where the proportion of variance explained was much more pronounced in the dimictic (79% explained) than in the polymictic systems (7% explained). Paleolimnological analyses of subfossil chironomids in surface sediment samples (0–1 cm) from 18 of the 36 study lakes, and in sediment core profiles from the dimictic and polymictic basins of a eutrophic lake, showed that water quality differed between mixis groups. We found that the surface sediment chironomid assemblages differed significantly between polymictic and dimictic lakes. Detailed analyses of the sediment cores demonstrated that the two basin types differed in their responses to land-use change through time, as only the dimictic basin showed a parallel increase in anoxia with increasing agricultural development. We suggest that in naturally-fertile landscapes, external nutrient loading exerts a more notable effect on dimictic lakes, whereas internal nutrient loading is more important in polymictic systems.

Keywords

Eutrophication Chironomid Agriculture Mixis Anoxia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Joshua Kurek for training in chironomid taxonomy. Joanna Hobbins for providing help with the use of Geological Information Systems (GIS). Megan McLean, Amanda Krowski, Mike Bylik, Alberta Environment (AENV) and Alberta Lake Management Society (ALMS) for fieldwork assistance. Elena Bennett, Bronwyn Keatley, Brian Leung, Jesse Vermaire, Émilie Saulnier-Talbot, Dan Selbie, and Guangjie Chen for manuscript revisions. Erika Brown for reference revisions. Lauren McGruthers for her help with chironomid sub-sampling. Funding for this research came from the Lakeland Industry and Community Association of Alberta (LICA), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) and McGill University.

References

  1. AENV (Alberta Environment) (2007) http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/reports/pdf/Report4TP1.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2007
  2. AGS (Alberta Geological Survey) (2007) http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/. Accessed 5 Aug 2009
  3. Appleby PG, Richardson N, Smith JT (1993) The use of radionuclide records for Chernobyl and weapons test fallout for assessing the reliability of 210Pb in dating very recent sediments. Verh Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 25:266–269Google Scholar
  4. Barica J (1987) Water quality problems associated with productivity of Prairie lakes in Canada: a review. Water Qual Bull 12:107–115Google Scholar
  5. Binford MW (1990) Calculation and uncertainty analysis of 210Pb dates for PIRLA project lake sediment cores. J Paleolimnol 3:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birks HJB (1995) Quantitative palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. In: Maddy D, Brew JS (eds) Statistical modeling of quaternary science data. Technical guide, vol 5. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, pp 161–254Google Scholar
  7. Blais JM, Duff KE, Schindler DW, Smol JP, Leavitt PR, Agbeti M (2000) Recent eutrophication histories in Lac Ste. Anne and Lake Isle, Alberta, Canada, inferred using paleolimnological methods. Lake Reserv Manag 16:292–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blakney SD (1998) Diatoms as indicators of eutrophication in lakes, Pine Lake, Alberta, Canada: a case study. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  9. Bray JR, Curtis JT (1957) An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecol Monogr 27:325–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brodersen KP, Lindegaard C (1997) Significance of subfossil chironomid remains in classification of shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 342:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodersen KP, Quinlan R (2006) Midges as palaeoindicators of lake productivity, eutrophication and hypolimnetic oxygen. Quat Sci Rev 25:1995–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brodersen KP, Dall PC, Lindegaard C (1998) The fauna in the upper stony littoral of Danish lakes: macroinvertebrates as trophic indicators. Freshw Biol 39:577–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brodersen KP, Odgaard B, Vestergaard O, Anderson NJ (2001) Chironomid stratigraphy in the shallow and eutrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark. Freshw Biol 46:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brodersen KP, Pedersen O, Lindegaard C, Hamburger K (2004) Chironomids (Diptera) and oxy-regulatory capacity: an experimental approach to paleolimnological interpretation. Limnol Oceanogr 49:1546–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brodersen KP, Pedersen O, Walker IR, Jensen MT (2008) Respiration of midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) in British Columbian lakes: oxy-regulation, temperature and their role as palaeo-indicators. Freshw Biol 53:593–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christie CE, Smol JP (1996) Limnological effects of 19th century canal construction and other disturbances in the trophic state history of Upper Rideau Lake, Ontario. Lake Reserv Manag 12:448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edn. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK, p 172Google Scholar
  18. Clerk S, Hall R, Quinlan R, Smol JP (2000) Quantitative inferences of past hypolimnetic anoxia and nutrient levels from a Canadian Precambrian Shield Lake. J Paleolimnol 23:319–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clerk S, Selbie DT, Smol JP (2004) Cage aquaculture and water-quality changes in the LaCloche Channel, Lake Huron, Canada: a paleolimnological assessment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:1691–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cornett RJ (1989) Predicting changes in hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations with phosphorus retention, temperature, and morphometry. Limnol Oceanogr 34:1359–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Curry LVL (1965) A survey of environmental requirements for the midge (Diptera: Tendipedidae). In: Tarzwell CM (ed) Biological problems in water pollution. Third Seminar. US Public Health Serv. Publ. No. 99-WP-25; pp 127–141Google Scholar
  22. Dall PC, Lindegaard C, Jonsson E, Jonsson G, Jonasson PM (1984) Invertebrate communities and their environment in the exposed littoral zone of Lake Esrom, Denmark. Archiv Für Hydrobiologie Monografische Beiträge 69:477–524Google Scholar
  23. Devito KJ, Creed I, Gan T, Mendoza C, Petrone R, Silins U, Smerdon B (2005) A framework for broad scale classification of hydrologic response units on the Boreal Plain: is topography the last thing to consider? Hydrol Process 19:1705–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dinsmore WP, Prepas EE (1997) Impact of hypolimnetic oxygenation on profundal macroinvertebrates in a euphotic lake in central Alberta II. Changes in Chironomus spp. abundance and biomass. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:2170–2181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dixit AS, Hall RI, Leavitt PR, Quinlan R, Smol JP (2000) Effects of sequential depositional basins on lake response to urban and agricultural pollution: a palaeoecological analysis of the Qu’Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada. Freshw Biol 43:319–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donahue WF (2006) Historical interpretation of water supply to Muriel Lake in the 20th Century. Prepared for the Lakeland Industry and Community Association. Freshwater Research Ltd., Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  27. ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) (1999) ArcView Spatial analyst extension. ESRI, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Fee EJ (1979) A relation between lake morphometry and primary productivity and its use in interpreting whole-lake eutrophication experiments. Limnol Oceanogr 24:401–416Google Scholar
  29. Francis DR (2001) A record of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in a temperate multi- depression lake from chemical evidence and chironomid remains. J Paleolimnol 25:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fraterrigo JM, Downing JA (2008) The influence of land use on lake nutrients varies with watershed transport capacity. Ecosystems 11:1021–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. García-Berthou E, Moreno-Amich R (2000) Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) introduced to the Iberian peninsula: feeding ecology in Lake Banyoles. Hydrobiologia 436:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. George DG, Maberly SC, Hewitt DP (2004) The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of four lakes in the English Lake District. Freshw Biol 49:760–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gerten D, Adrian R (2001) Differences in the persistency of the North Atlantic Oscillation signal among lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 46:448–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glew JR (1988) A portable extruding device for close interval sectioning of unconsolidated core samples. J Paleolimnol 1:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall RI, Leavitt PR, Quinlan R, Dixit AS, Smol JP (1999) Effects of agriculture, urbanization, and climate on water quality in the northern Great Plains. Limnol Oceanogr 44:739–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanna M (1990) Evaluation of models predicting mixing depth. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47:940–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heiri O, Lotter AF (2003) 9000 years of chironomid assemblage dynamics in an Alpine lake: long-term trends, sensitivity to disturbance, and resilience of the fauna. J Paleolimnol 30:273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heiri O, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Velle G, Willassen E (2003) Effects of within-lake variability of fossil assemblages on quantitative chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 199:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson LJ (2003) Macrophyte-dominated and turbid states of shallow lakes: evidence from Alberta Lakes. Ecosystems 6:213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kalff J (2002) Limnology: inland water ecosystems. Prentice Hall, NJGoogle Scholar
  41. Kangur M, Kangur K, Laugaste R, Punning JM, Möls T (2007) Combining limnological and paleolimnological approaches in assessing degradation of Lake Pskov. Hydrobiologia 584:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karst TL, Smol JP (2000) Paleolimnological evidence of limnetic nutrient concentration equilibrium in a shallow, macrophyte-dominated lake. Aquat Sci 63:20–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Komex International Ltd (2003) Lakeland region watershed study. Report prepared for the Lakeland Industry-Community Association, Bonnyville, Alberta, p 648 http://www.lica.ca/modules.php?name=Downloads&d_op=viewdownload&cid=58. Accessed 3 Feb 2009
  44. Köster D, Taranu ZE, Hall RI Gregory-Eaves I (2008) Baseline water quality information for the Moose Lake Watershed Management Plan. Submitted to the Lakeland Industry-Community Association, Bonnyville, Alberta. http://www.lica.ca/modules.php?name=Downloads&d_op=viewdownload&cid=58. Accessed 3 Feb 2009
  45. Langdon PL, Ruiz Z, Brodersen KP, Foster IDL (2006) Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types. Freshw Biol 51:562–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Larsen DP, Schults DW, Malueg KW (1981) Summer internal phosphorus supplies in Shagawa Lake, Minnesota. Limnol Oceanogr 26:740–753Google Scholar
  47. Little JL, Smol JP (2000) Changes in fossil midge (Chironomidae) assemblages in response to cultural activities in a shallow, polymictic lake. J Paleolimnol 23:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Little JL, Smol JP (2001) A chironomid-based model for inferring late-summer hypolimnetic oxygen in southeastern Ontario lakes. J Paleolimnol 26:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Little JL, Hall RI, Quinlan R, Smol JP (2000) Past trophic status and hypolimnetic anoxia during eutrophication and remediation of Gravenhurst Bay, Ontario: comparison of diatoms, chironomids, and historical records. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Massaferro J, Brooks SJ, Haberle SG (2005) The dynamics of chironomid assemblages and vegetation during the Late Quaternary at Laguna Facil, Chonos Archipelago, southern Chile. Quat Sci Rev 24:2510–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McEachern P, Charette T (2003/2004). Lakes in Alberta’s Boreal Forest. Lakeline. Winter 20–23Google Scholar
  52. Meding ME, Jackson L (2003) Biotic, chemical and morphometric factors contributing to winter Anoxia in Prairie Lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1633–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Millet L, Verneaux V, Magny M (2003) Lateglacial paleoenvironmental reconstruction using subfossil chironomid assemblages from Lake Lautrey (Jura, France). Archiv Für Hydrobiologie 156:405–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mitchell P, Prepas EE (1990) Atlas of Alberta Lakes. The University Press of AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  55. Mooij WM, Hülsmann S, de Senerpont Domis LN, Nolet BA, Bodelier PLE, Boers PCM, Dionisio Pires LM, Gons HJ, Ibelings BW, Noordhuis R, Portielje R, Wolfstein K Lammens EHRR, (2005) The impact of climate change on lakes in the Netherlands: a review. Aquatic Ecol 39:381–400Google Scholar
  56. Moss B, Barker T, Stephen D, Williams AE, Balayla D, Beklioglu M, Carvalho L (2005) Consequences of reduced nutrient loading on a lake system in a lowland catchment: deviations from the norm? Freshw Biol 50:1687–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nagell B, Landahl CC (1978) Resistance to anoxia of Chironomus plumosus and Chironomus anthrancinus (Diptera) larvae. Holarctic Ecol 1:333–336Google Scholar
  58. Nocentini A, Boggero A, De Margaritis G, Gianatti M (2001) First phase of macroinvertebrate repopulation of Lake Orta (Buccione Basin) after liming. J Limnol 60:110–126Google Scholar
  59. Oliver DR, Roussell ME, (1983) The insects and arachnids of Canada, Part II. The genera of larval midges of Canada. Publication 1746, Agriculture Canada. Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  60. Osgood RA (1988) Lake mixis and internal phosphorus dynamics. Archiv Für Hydrobiologie 113:629–638Google Scholar
  61. Papst MH, Mathias JA, Barica J (1980) Relationship between thermal stability and summer oxygen depletion in a prairie pothole lake. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:1433–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pinder LCV (1986) Biology of freshwater Chironomidae. Annu Rev Entomol 31:1–23Google Scholar
  63. Pinder LCV (1995) The habitats of chironomid larvae. In: Armitage, PD, Cranston PS, Pinder LCV (eds) The Chironomidae: biology and ecology of non-biting midges (Chap 6), Springer, p 572Google Scholar
  64. Prairie YT, Kalff J (1986) Effect of catchment size on phosphorus export. Water Resour Bull 22:465–470Google Scholar
  65. Prepas EE, Trew DO (1983) Evaluation of the phosphorus chlorophyll relationship for lakes off the Precambrian shield in western Canada. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quinlan R, Smol JP (2001a) Setting minimum head capsule abundance and taxa deletion criteria in chironomid-based inference models. J Paleolimnol 26:327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quinlan R, Smol JP (2001b) Chironomid-based inference models for estimating end-of-summer hypolimnetic oxygen from south-central Ontario shield lakes. Freshw Biol 46:1529–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Quinlan R, Smol JP, Hall RI (1998) Quantitative inferences of past hypolimnetic anoxia in south-central Ontario lakes using fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Quinlan R, Leavitt PR, Dixit AS, Hall RI, Smol JP (2002) Effects of agriculture, climate and urban factors on water quality of Canadian Prairie lakes: a landscape analysis of fossil chironomid communities. Limnol Oceanogr 47:378–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. R Development Core Team (2007) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org
  71. Riley ET, Prepas EE (1984) Role of internal phosphorus loading in 2 shallow, productive lakes in Alberta, Canada. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 6:845–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riley ET, Prepas EE (1985) Comparison of the phosphorus-chlorophyll relationships in mixed and stratified lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:831–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schaffner WR, Oglesby RT (1978) Phosphorus loading to lakes and some of their responses. Part 1. A new calculation of phosphorus loading and its application to 13 New York lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 23:120–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schindler DW, Bayley SE, Parker BR, Beaty KG, Cruikshank DR, Fee EJ, Schindler EU, Stainton MP (1996) The effects of climatic warming on the properties of Boreal Lakes and streams at the Experimental Lakes Area, Northwestern Ontario. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1004–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schindler DW, Wolfe AP, Vinebrooke R, Crowe A, Blais JM, Miskimmin B, Freed R, Perren B (2008) The cultural eutrophication of Lac la Biche, Alberta, Canada: a paleoecological study. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2211–2223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Søndergaard M, Jensen JP, Jeppesen E (2003) Role of sediment and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 506–509:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. USGS (United States Geological Survey) (2007) http://www.usgs.gov. Accessed 5 Sep 2007
  78. Taranu ZE, (2008) Tracking changes in water quality due to catchment land-use and lake morphometry across spatial and temporal scales. M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, p 106Google Scholar
  79. Taranu ZE, Gregory-Eaves I (2008) Quantifying the variance in limnetic phosphorus concentration explained by agriculture and morphometry: a meta-analytical and mixed- effects model synthesis. Ecosystems 11:715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. ter Braak CJF, Prentice IC (1988) A theory of gradient analysis. Adv Ecol Res 18:271–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P (2004) CANOCO for Windows version 4.53. Center for Biometry Wageningen, CPRO-DLO. Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  82. Walker IR (2001) Midges: Chironomidae and related Diptera. In: Smol JP, Birks HJB (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediment, vol 4. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  83. Walker IR, Cwynar LC (2006) Midges and paleotemperature reconstruction–the North American experience. Quat Sci Rev 25:1911–1925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Welch EB, Cooke GD (1995) Internal phosphorus loading in shallow lakes: importance and control. Lake Reserv Manag 11:273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wiederholm T (1983) Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnosis. Part I. Larvae. Entomol Scand Suppl 19:1–457Google Scholar
  86. Woodward CA, Shulmeister J (2006) New Zealand chironomids as proxies for human-induced and natural environmental change: transfer functions for temperature and lake production (chlorophyll a). J Paleolimnol 36:407–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zofia Ecaterina Taranu
    • 1
  • Dörte Köster
    • 3
  • Roland I. Hall
    • 2
  • Theo Charette
    • 4
  • Francine Forrest
    • 5
  • Les C. Cwynar
    • 6
  • Irene Gregory-Eaves
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Gartner Lee LimitedBracebridgeCanada
  4. 4.Cumulative Environmental Management AssociationEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Worley Parsons KomexEdmontonCanada
  6. 6.Department of BiologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations