Ground Motion Characterization for Vertical Ground Motions in Turkey—Part 2: Vertical Ground Motion Models and the Final Logic Tree

  • Zeynep GülerceEmail author
  • N. A. Alipour
  • M. A. Sandikkaya


The main objectives of this study are: (1) to choose the vertical ground motion models (GMMs) that are consistent with the magnitude, distance, depth, and site amplification scaling of the updated Turkish ground motion database, and (2) to combine the vertical GMMs with the V/H ratio models selected in the accompanying paper (Alipour et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 1–22, 2019) to provide the ground motion characterization logic tree for the vertical ground motion component in Turkey. Four global vertical GMMs [proposed by Bozorgnia and Campbell in Earthq Spectra 32(2):979–1004, 2016b; Stewart et al. in Earthq Spectra 32(2):1005–1031, 2016; Gülerce et al. in Earthq Spectra 33(2):499–528, 2017 using the NGA-West 2 database; and Çagnan et al. in Bull Earthq Eng 15(7):2617–2643, 2017 model based on the RESORCE database] are selected, and the model predictions are compared with the actual data in the updated Turkish ground motion dataset using the analysis of the residuals. Analysis results showed that the magnitude scaling of Çagnan et al. (2017) model and the depth scaling of the Bozorgnia and Campbell (2016b) model are inconsistent with the Turkish strong motion database. Additionally, small-magnitude (SM) scaling of Stewart et al. (2016) and Gülerce et al. (2017) GMMs should be modified for a better fit with the Turkish dataset. Trellis plots of SM-modified Stewart et al. (2016) and SM-modified Gülerce et al. (2017) vertical GMMs and selected V/H ratio models multiplied with NGA-West 2 and Turkey (TR)-adjusted horizontal NGA-West 1 models [Gülerce et al. in Earthq Spectra 32(1):75–100, 2016] are used to determine the logic tree weights for the proposed vertical ground motion characterization logic tree for Turkey.


Turkish strong motion database vertical ground motion models analysis of residuals regional small-magnitude correction ground motion logic tree 



This manuscript was prepared based on the graduate thesis of N. A. Alipour in the Earthquake Studies Department of Middle East Technical University. Review and suggestions of the thesis defense committee members are highly appreciated. We are grateful for the efforts of editors and guest editors of the special issue, especially Dr. Luis Dalguer and Dr. Philippe Renault. The authors are thankful to Shahram Pezeshk and Emel Seyhan for their insightful comments.


  1. Akkar, S., Çağnan, Z., Yenier, E., Erdoğan, Ö., Sandıkkaya, M. A., & Gülkan, P. (2010). The recently compiled Turkish strong motion database: Preliminary investigation for seismological parameters. Journal of Seismology,14(3), 457–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akkar, S., Kale, Ö., Yakut, A., & Ceken, U. (2018). Ground-motion characterization for the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Turkey. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering,16(8), 3439–3463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akkar, S., Sandıkkaya, M. A., & Ay, B. Ö. (2014a). Compatible ground-motion prediction equations for damping scaling factors and vertical-to-horizontal spectral amplitude ratios for the broader Europe region. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering,12(1), 517–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akkar, S., Sandıkkaya, M. A., & Bommer, J. J. (2014b). Empirical ground-motion models for point- and extended source crustal Earthquake scenarios in Europe and the Middle East. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering,12(1), 359–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alipour, N. A., Sandıkkaya, M. A., & Gülerce, Z. (2019). Ground motion characterization for vertical ground motions in Turkey—Part 1: V/H ratio ground motion models. Pure and Applied Geophysics.
  6. Bommer, J. J., Coppersmith, K. J., Coppersmith, R. T., Hanson, K. L., Mangongolo, A., Neveling, J., et al. (2015). A SSHAC level 3 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for a new-build nuclear site in South Africa. Earthquake Spectra,31(2), 661–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bozorgnia, Y., Abrahamson, N. A., Atik, L. A., Ancheta, T. D., Atkinson, G. M., Baker, J. W., et al. (2014). NGA-West2 research project. Earthquake Spectra,30(3), 973–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bozorgnia, Y., & Campbell, K. W. (2016a). Ground motion model for the vertical-to-horizontal (V/H) ratios of PGA, PGV, and response spectra. Earthquake Spectra,32(2), 951–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bozorgnia, Y., & Campbell, K. W. (2016b). Vertical ground motion model for PGA, PGV, and linear response spectra using the NGA-West2 database. Earthquake Spectra,32(2), 979–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Çağnan, Z., Akkar, S., Kale, Ö., & Sandıkkaya, A. (2017). A model for predicting vertical component peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (PSA) for Europe and the Middle East. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering,15(7), 2617–2643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douglas, J. (2018). Ground-motion prediction equations 1964–2018. Retrieved form Accessed 4 Nov 2019.
  12. Gülerce, Z., & Akyuz, E. (2013). The NGA-W1 vertical-to-horizontal spectral acceleration ratio prediction equations adjusted for Turkey. Seismological Research Letters,84(4), 678–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gülerce, Z., Kamai, R., Abrahamson, N. A., & Silva, W. J. (2017). Ground motion prediction equations for the vertical ground motion component based on the NGA-W2 database. Earthquake Spectra,33(2), 499–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gülerce, Z., Kargıoğlu, B., & Abrahamson, N. A. (2016). Turkey-adjusted NGA-W1 horizontal ground motion prediction models. Earthquake Spectra,32(1), 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mak, S., Cotton, F., & Schorlemmer, D. (2017). Measuring the performance of ground-motion models: The importance of being independent. Seismological Research Letters,88(5), 1212–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stewart, J. P., Boore, D. M., Seyhan, E., & Atkinson, G. M. (2016). NGA-West2 equations for predicting vertical-component PGA, PGV, and 5%-damped PSA from shallow crustal earthquakes. Earthquake Spectra,32(2), 1005–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Earthquake Studies DepartmentMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Civil Engineering DepartmentHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations