Advertisement

The Impact of Post-tsunami Surveys on the NCEI/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database

  • Nicolas P. ArcosEmail author
  • Paula K. Dunbar
  • Kelly J. Stroker
  • Laura S. L. Kong
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Since the late nineteenth century, post-tsunami survey teams have been collecting water height data (e.g. maximum inundation, runup, flow depth) as well as other types of data, including geologic and socio-economic effects. The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service (WDS) for Geophysics provide data management and access to global tsunami data. NCEI’s Global Historical Tsunami Database includes information on over 2200 tsunami sources and over 26,000 runup points. The tsunami database has adapted to capture the advancements of post-tsunami survey data collection and distribution methods. The first International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST), which surveyed the impacts of the 02 September 1992 Nicaragua tsunami, spurred the formalization of standards and guidance for post-tsunami surveys. The post-tsunami survey data analyzed are a significant contribution, in quality and quantity, to the runup database. The 26 December 2004 Indonesia and 11 March 2011 Japan events alone account for over 25% of the total number of runup points in the database. Further, the analysis indicates that post-tsunami survey data capture a more complete representation of the tsunami that is being documented, not just the highest runup measurements. This range in post-tsunami survey runup heights for events, in the NCEI/WDS tsunami database, provides a more reliable historical tsunami dataset to test tsunami models against. This study also provides readers an understanding of the evolution of the tsunami database, particularly regarding the ongoing need to adapt to emerging scientific advances and standards.

Keywords

Tsunami database survey flow depth runup wave height catalog 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The manuscript was improved by valuable comments from Emile Okal and an anonymous reviewer. We thank the many colleagues at the NCEI and ITIC who provided us with the resources needed to conduct this study’s analysis.

References

  1. Altınok, Y., Tinti, S., Alpar, V., Yalçıner, A., Ersoy, Ş., Bortolucci, E., et al. (2001). The Tsunami of August 17, 1999 in Izmit Bay, Turkey. Natural Hazards, 24, 133–146.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011863610289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aránguiz, R., González, G., Cienfuegos, R., Yagi, Y., Okuwaki, R., Urra, L., et al. (2016). The 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami from the post-tsunami survey and numerical modeling perspectives. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 173(2), 333–348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1225-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcas, D., & Uslu, B. (2010). A tsunami forecast model for Crescent City, California. NOAA OAR Spec. Rep./PMEL Tsunami Forecast Ser. 2, 112 pp., Gov. Print. Off., Seattle.Google Scholar
  4. Arcos, N., Dunbar, P., Stroker, K., & Kong, L. (2017). The legacy of the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami. Eos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2017eo080845.Google Scholar
  5. Borrero, J. C. (2005a). Field data and satellite imagery of tsunami effects in Banda Aceh. Science, 308(5728), 1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borrero, J. C. (2005b). Field survey of northern Sumatra and Banda Aceh, Indonesia after the tsunami and earthquake of 26 December 2004. Seismological Research Letters, 76(3), 312–320.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.76.3.312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borrero, J. C., Kalligeris, N., Lynett, P. J., Fritz, H. M., Newman, A. V., & Convers, J. A. (2014). Observations and modeling of the August 27, 2012 earthquake and tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(12), 3421–3435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borrero, J. C., McAdoo, B., Jaffe, B., Dengler, L., Gelfenbaum, G., Higman, B., et al. (2011). Field survey of the March 28, 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake and tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 168(6–7), 1075–1088.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-010-0218-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borrero, J., Ortíz, M., Titov, V., & Synolakis, C. (1997). Field survey of Mexican tsunami produces new data, unusual photos. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 78(8), 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borrero, J., Saiang, J., Uslu, B., Freckman, J., Gomer, B., Okal, E., et al. (2003). Field survey and preliminary modeling of the Wewak, Papua New Guinea earthquake and Tsunami of 9 September 2002. Seismological Research Letters, 74, 393–405.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.74.4.393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borrero, J. C., Weiss, R., Okal, E. A., Hidayat, R., Arcas, D., & Titov, V. (2009). The tsunami of 2007 September 12, Bengkulu province, Sumatra, Indonesia: post-tsunami field survey and numerical modelling. Geophysical Journal International, 178, 180–194.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.04058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourgeois, J. (2009). Geologic effects and records of tsunamis. In: E. N. Bernard & A. R. Robinson (eds.), The Sea, 15 (pp. 53-91).Google Scholar
  13. Bourgeois, J., Petroff, C., Yeh, H., Titov, V., Synolakis, C., Benson, B., et al. (1999). Geologic setting, field survey and modeling of the Chimbote, Northern Peru, Tsunami of 21 February 1996. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 154, 513–540.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caminade, P., Charlie, D., Kânoğlu, U., Koshimura, S., Matsutomi, H., Moore, A., et al. (2000). Vanuatu earthquake and tsunami cause much damage, few casualties. Eos, 81, 641–647.  https://doi.org/10.1029/EO081i052p00641-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Catalán, P. A., Aránguiz, R., González, G., Tomita, T., Cienfuegos, R., González, J., et al. (2015). The 1 April 2014 Pisagua tsunami: observations and modeling. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(8), 2918–2925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Contreras-López, M., Winckler, P., Sepúlveda, I., Andaur-Álvarez, A., Cortés-Molina, F., Guerrero, C. J., et al. (2016). Field survey of the 2015 Chile tsunami with emphasis on coastal wetland and conservation areas. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 173(2), 349–367.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1235-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dengler, L., Borrero, J., Gelfenbaum, G., Jaffe, B., Okal, E., Ortiz, M., et al. (2003). Tsunami. Earthquake Spectra, 19, 115–144.  https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1737247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunbar, P., & McCullough, H. (2012). Global tsunami deposits database. Natural hazards, 63(1), 267–278.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9713-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunbar, P. K., Stroker, K. J., Brocko, V. R., Varner, J. D., McLean, S. J., Taylor, L. A., et al. (2008). Long-term tsunami data archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, and mitigation. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 165, 2275–2291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-008-0419-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eaton, J. P., Richter, D. H., & Ault, W. U. (1961). The tsunami of May 23, 1960, on the Island of Hawaii. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 51(2), 135–157.Google Scholar
  21. Fritz, H. M., & Borrero, J. C. (2006). Somalia field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Earthquake Spectra, 22(S3), 219–233.  https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2201972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fritz, H. M., Borrero, J. C., Synolakis, C. E., & Yoo, J. (2006a). 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami flow velocity measurements from survivor videos. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026784.Google Scholar
  23. Fritz, H. M., Hillaire, J. V., Molière, E., Wei, Y., & Mohammed, F. (2013). Twin tsunamis triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(9–10), 1463–1474.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0479-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fritz, H., & Kalligeris, N. (2008). Ancestral heritage saves tribes during 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L01607.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fritz, H., Kalligeris, N., Borrero, J., Broncano, P., & Ortega, E. (2008). The 15 August 2007 Peru tsunami runup observations and modelling. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L10604.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fritz, H. M., Kongko, W., Moore, A., McAdoo, B., Goff, J., Harbitz, C., et al. (2007). Extreme runup from the 17 July 2006 Java tsunami. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L12602.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fritz, H. M., Petroff, C. M., Catalán, P. A., Cienfuegos, R., Winckler, P., Kalligeris, N., et al. (2011). Field survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 168(11), 1989–2010.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-011-0283-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fritz, H. M., Phillips, D. A., Okayasu, A., Shimozono, T., Liu, H., Mohammed, F., et al. (2012). The 2011 Japan tsunami current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050686.Google Scholar
  29. Fritz, H. M., Synolakis, C. E., & McAdoo, B. G. (2006b). Maldives field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Earthquake Spectra, 22(S3), 137–154.  https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2201973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fryer, G. J. (2011). Walk the inundation limit: A suggestion for future post-tsunami surveys. Earth-Science Reviews, 107(1–2), 123–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibson, D. (2015). National Report of Vanuatu (International Co-ordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, XXVI Session). Paris: UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.Google Scholar
  32. Gusiakov, V. K. (1995). The Shikotan, Kuril Islands, earthquake tsunami, october 4, 1994 (p. 12). Colorado: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder.Google Scholar
  33. Gusiakov, V.K. (2009). Tsunami history: recorded. In: E. N. Bernard, & A. R. Robinson, (eds.), The Sea, 15, (pp. 23–53).Google Scholar
  34. Hill, E. M., Borrero, J. C., Huang, Z., Qiu, Q., Banerjee, P., Natawidjaja, D. H., et al. (2012). The 2010 M w 7.8 Mentawai earthquake: Very shallow source of a rare tsunami earthquake determined from tsunami field survey and near-field GPS data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jb009159.Google Scholar
  35. Imamura, A. (1924). Preliminary note on the great earthquake of southeastern Japan on September 1, 1923. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 14(2), 136–149.Google Scholar
  36. Imamura, F., Synolakis, C. E., Gica, E., Titov, V., Listanco, E., & Lee, H. J. (1995). Field survey of the 1994 Mindoro Island. Philippines tsunami. Pure and applied geophysics, 144(3–4), 875–890.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. (1998). Post-tsunami survey field guide. IOC Manuals and Guides No. 37, Paris.Google Scholar
  38. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. (2014). International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. 2nd Edition. IOC Manuals and Guides No. 37, Paris.Google Scholar
  39. Kaistrenko, V., and Sedaeva, V. (2001), 1952 North Kuril tsunami: new data from archives, In: Tsunami research at the end of a critical decade, ed. by G.T. Hebenstreit, Adv. Natur. Technol. Res. 18, pp. 91–102, Kluver, Dordrecht, 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Kajiura, K. (1981). Some statistics related to observed tsunami heights along the coast of Japan. Tsunamis-their science and engineering, 131–145.Google Scholar
  41. Kalligeris, N., Skanavis, V., Tavakkol, S., Ayca, A., Safty, H. E., Lynett, P., et al. (2016). Lagrangian flow measurements and observations of the 2015 Chilean tsunami in Ventura, CA. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(10), 5217–5224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kanamori, H. (1972). Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 6(5), 346–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(72)90058-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kawata, Y., Benson, B. C., Borrero, J. C., Borrero, J. L., Davies, H. L., de Lange, W. P., et al. (1999). Tsunami in Papua New Guinea was as intense as first thought. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 80(9), 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kong, L. (2011). Post-tsunami field surveys are essential for mitigating the next tsunami disaster. Oceanography, 24(2), 222–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lamarche, G., Pelletier, B., & Goff, J. (2010). Impact of the 29 september 2009 south pacific tsunami on Wallis and Futuna. Marine Geology, 271(3–4), 297–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2010.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lander, J., Lockridge, P.A., & Kozuch, J. (1993). Tsunamis affecting the west coast of the United States 1806–1992: NGDC Key to Geophysical Research Documentation No. 29. NOAA., Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  47. Lander, J. F., & Yeh, H. (1995). Report of the international tsunami measurements workshop. Colorado: Estes Park.Google Scholar
  48. Leipold, L E., & Wood, F.J. (Eds.). (1966). The prince william sound, Alaska, earthquake of 1964 and aftershocks (Vol. 2). US Govt. Print. Off.Google Scholar
  49. Leonard, L. J., & Bednarski, J. M. (2014). Field survey following the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(12), 3467–3482.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-014-0792-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lynett, P., Borrero, J., Liu, P., & Synolakis, C. (2003). Field survey and numerical simulations: A review of the 1998 Papua new Guinea Tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, 2119–2146.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2422-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. MacInnes, B. T., Pinegina, T. K., Bourgeois, J., Razhigaeva, N. G., Kaistrenko, V. M., & Kravchunovskaya, E. A. (2009). Field survey and geological effects of the 15 november 2006 kuril tsunami in the middle kuril islands. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 166, 9–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-008-0428-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maramai, A., & Tinti, S. (1997). The 3 June 1994 Java tsunami: A post-event survey of the coastal effects. Natural Hazards, 15(1), 31–49.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007957224367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mori, N., Takahashi, T., Yasuda, T., & Yanagisawa, H. (2011). Survey of 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami inundation and runup. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L00G14.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl049210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Murty, T.S., Baptista, A.M., & Priest, G.R. (1993). Post-tsunami survey (Nov. 2–7, 1992) of run-up and inundation in the coast of Nicaragua. Report to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO), Paris, France, 3.Google Scholar
  55. National Centers for Environmental Information/World Data Service (NCEI/WDS). (2019). Global historical tsunami database. Natl. Cent. for Environ. Inf., Boulder, Colo.,  https://doi.org/10.7289/v5pn93h7. (Accessed 27 March 2019).
  56. Newman, A., Feng, L., Fritz, H., Lifton, Z., Kalligeris, N., & Wei, Y. (2011). The energetic 2010 MW 7.1 Solomon Islands tsunami earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 186, 775–781.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05057.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Okal, E. A., Fritz, H. M., Hamzeh, M. A., & Ghasemzadeh, J. (2015). Field survey of the 1945 Makran and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamis in Baluchistan, Iran. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 172(12), 3343–3356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Okal, E. A., Fritz, H. M., Synolakis, C. E., Borrero, J. C., Weiss, R., Lynett, P. J., et al. (2010). Field survey of the Samoa tsunami of 29 September 2009. Seismological Research Letters, 81(4), 577–591.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.81.4.577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Okal, E. A., Fryer, G. J., Borrero, J. C., & Ruscher, C. (2002a). The landslide and local tsunami of 13 September 1999 on Fatu Hiva (Marquesas islands; French Polynesia). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 173(4), 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Okal, E. A., & Hébert, H. (2007). Far-field simulation of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami. Geophysical Journal International, 169(3), 1229–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Okal, E. A., Plafker, G., Synolakis, C. E., & Borrero, J. C. (2003). Near-field survey of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami on Unimak and Sanak Islands. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93(3), 1226–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Okal, E. A., & Synolakis, C. E. (2004). Source discriminants for near-field tsunamis. Geophysical Journal International, 158(3), 899–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Okal, E. A., Synolakis, C. E., Fryer, G. J., Heinrich, P., Borrero, J. C., Ruscher, C., et al. (2002b). A field survey of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami in the far field. Seismological Research Letters, 73(4), 490–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Okal, E. A., Synolakis, C. E., Uslu, B., Kalligeris, N., & Voukouvalas, E. (2009). The 1956 earthquake and tsunami in Amorgos, Greece. Geophysical Journal International, 178(3), 1533–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pararas-Carayannis, G. (1976). Survey of Philippine earthquake and tsunami of August 16, 1976, ITIC Report 1976. Tsunami Newsletter, 9(3).Google Scholar
  66. Pelinovsky, E., Yuliadi, D., Prasetya, G., & Hidayat, R. (1997). The 1996 Sulawesi tsunami. Natural Hazards, 16(1), 29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007904610680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Platania, G. (1909). Il maremoto dello stretto di Messina del 28 dicembre 1908. Societá tipografica modenese. (In Italian).Google Scholar
  68. Power, W., Clark, K., King, D. N., Borrero, J., Howarth, J., Lane, E. M., et al. (2017). Tsunami runup and tide-gauge observations from the 14 November 2016 M7. 8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174(7), 2457–2473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Quarantelli, E. L. (1997). The Disaster Center field studies of organized behavior in the crisis time period of disasters. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 15(1), 47–69.Google Scholar
  70. Ramakrishnan, D., Ghosh, S. K., Raja, V. K. M., Chandran, R. V., & Jeyram, A. (2005). Trails of the killer tsunami: A preliminary assessment using satellite remote sensing technique. Current Science, 88(5), 709–711.Google Scholar
  71. Ramírez-Herrera, M. T., Corona, N., Ruiz-Angulo, A., Melgar, D., & Zavala-Hidalgo, J. (2018). The 8 september 2017 tsunami triggered by the Mw 8.2 intraplate earthquake, Chiapas, Mexico. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 175(1), 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reymond, D., Hyvernaud, O., & Okal, E. A. (2013). The 2010 and 2011 tsunamis in French polynesia: operational aspects and field surveys. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(6–8), 1169–1187.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0485-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Salaree, A., Mansouri, R., & Okal, E. A. (2018). The intriguing tsunami of 19 March 2017 at Bandar Dayyer, Iran: field survey and simulations. Natural Hazards, 90(3), 1277–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Satake, K., Bourgeois, J., Abe, K., Abe, K., Tsuji, Y., Imamura, F., et al. (1993). Tsunami field survey of the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake. Eos Transaction AGU, 74(13), 156–157.  https://doi.org/10.1029/93eo00271.Google Scholar
  75. Satake, K., Nishimura, Y., Putra, P. S., Gusman, A. R., Sunendar, H., Fujii, Y., et al. (2013). Tsunami source of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia earthquake inferred from tsunami field survey and waveform modeling. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(9–10), 1567–1582.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0536-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Satake, K., Rabinovich, A.B., Dominey-Howes, D., & Borrero, J.C. (2012). Introduction to ‘‘historical and recent catastrophic tsunamis in the world: Volume I. The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami”. Pure and Applied Geophysics,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0615-0 [Special issue with a number of studies of the Tohoku Tsunami].
  77. Savarenskiy, E.F., Tishchenko, V.G., Svyatlovskiy, A.E., Dobrovol’skiy, A.D., & Zhivago, A.V. (1958), Tsunami 4-5 noyabrya 1952g., Byulleten’ sovieta po seismologii 4, 63 pp., Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  78. Shuto, N., & Matsutomi, H. (1995). Field survey of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 144(3–4), 649–663.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sigrist, D. J. (1994). July 12, 1993, Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Tsunami–Effects and observations in Japan, Russia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Republic of Korea. In Proceedings of the 3rd UJNR Tsunami Workshop (No. 3315, p. 81). PWRI Technical Memorandum.Google Scholar
  80. Soloviev, S. L., & Go, C. N. (1974). A catalogue of tsunamis on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean (p. 308). Moscow: ‘‘Nauka’’ Publishing House. (in Russian; English translation by the Canadian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information, No.5077, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, 1984, 439 pp.).Google Scholar
  81. Soloviev, S. L., & Go, C. N. (1975). A catalog of tsunamis on the eastern shore of the Pacific ocean. Moscow: Academy of Science of the USSR, Nauka Publishing House. (in Russian; English translation by the Canadian Institute for Science and Technical Information, No. 5078, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, 1984, 293 pp.).Google Scholar
  82. Stallings, R. A. (2007). Methodological issues. In H. Rodríguez, E. L. Quarantelli, & R. R. Dynes (Eds.), Handbook of disaster research (pp. 55–83). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stratta, J.L., & Haas, J.E. (Eds.). (1977). Reconnaissance report, Mindanao, Philippines Earthquake, August 17, 1976. EERI.Google Scholar
  84. Suda, K. (1924). On the great Japanese earthquake of September 1, 1923, the observations of tsunami. The Memoirs of the Imperial Marine Observatory, 1, 4.Google Scholar
  85. Suppasri, A., Koshimura, S., Imai, K., Mas, E., Gokon, H., Muhari, A., et al. (2012). Damage characteristic and field survey of the 2011 great east japan tsunami in Miyagi prefecture. Coastal Engineering Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1142/s0578563412500052.Google Scholar
  86. Sweet, S., & Silver, E. A. (2003). Tectonics and slumping in the source region of the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami from seismic reflection images. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160(10–11), 1945–1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Synolakis, C. E., Bardet, J. P., Borrero, J. C., Davies, H. L., Okal, E. A., Silver, E. A., et al. (2002). The slump origin of the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 458(2020), 763–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Synolakis, C. E., & Okal, E. A. (2005). 1992–2002: perspective on a decade of post-tsunami surveys. Tsunamis (pp. 1–29). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  89. Tanioka, Y., Nishimura, Y., Hirakawa, K., Imamura, F., Abe, I., Abe, Y., et al. (2004). Tsunami run-up heights of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake. Earth, Planets and Space, 56(3), 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tappin, D. R., Watts, P., & Grilli, S. T. (2008). The Papua New Guinea tsunami of 17 July 1998: anatomy of a catastrophic event. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 8(2), 243–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tierney, K. J. (2002). The field turns fifty: social change and the practice of disaster field work. In: R. A. Stallings (ed.). Methods of Disaster Research (pp. 349–374).Google Scholar
  92. Trejo-Gómez, E., Ortiz, M., & Núñez-Cornú, F. J. (2015). Source model of the October 9, 1995 Jalisco-Colima tsunami as constrained by field survey reports, and on the numerical simulation of the tsunami. Geofísica Internacional, 54(2), 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tsuji, Y., Imamura, F., Matsutomi, H., Synolakis, C.E., Nanang, P.T., Harada, S., Han, S.S., Arai, K.I., & Cook, B. (1995b). Field survey of the East Java earthquake and tsunami of June 3, 1994. In Tsunamis: 1992–1994, Kenji Satake and Fumihiko Imamura, eds., Pure and applied geophysics, 144(3–4), 839–854.Google Scholar
  94. Tsuji, Y., Matsutomi, H., Imamura, F., Takeo, M., Kawata, Y., Matsuyama, M., et al. (1995a). Damage to coastal villages due to the 1992 Flores Island earthquake tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 144(3–4), 481–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tsuji, Y., Namegaya, Y., Matsumoto, H., Iwasaki, S. I., Kanbua, W., Sriwichai, M., et al. (2006). The 2004 Indian tsunami in Thailand: surveyed runup heights and tide gauge records. Earth, Planets and Space, 58(2), 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsuji, Y., Satake, K., Ishibe, T., Harada, T., Nishiyama, A., & Kusumoto, S. (2014). Tsunami heights along the pacific coast of northern Honshu recorded from the 2011 Tohoku and previous great earthquakes. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(12), 3183–3215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tsunami Technical Review Committee. (2002). Field guide for measuring tsunami runups and inundations. Civil Defense Division, Hawaii: State of Hawaii Department of Defense.Google Scholar
  98. Vitousek, M. J. (1963). The tsunami of 22 may 1960 in French polynesia. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 53(6), 1229–1236.Google Scholar
  99. Yalçıner, A., Altınok, Y., Synolakis, C., Borrero, J., Imamura, F., Ersoy, Ş., et al. (2000). Tsunami waves in Izmit bay. Earthquake Spectra, 16, 55–62.  https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yalçıner, A., Annunziato, A., Papadopoulos, G., Dogan, G.G., Guler, H.G., Cakir, T.E., Sozdinler, C.O., Ulutas, E., Arikawa, T., Suzen, L. & Kânoğlu, U. (2017). The 20th July 2017 (22: 31 UTC) Bodrum-Kos Earthquake and Tsunami: Post Tsunami Field Survey Report. Online report at: http://users.metu.edu.tr/Yalciner/July-21-2017-tsunami-report/Report-Field-Survey-of-July-20-2017-Bodrum-Kos-Tsunami.pdf.
  101. Yeh, H., Imamura, F., Synolakis, C., Tsuji, Y., Liu, P., & Shi, S. (1993). The flores island tsunamis. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 74(33), 369–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yeh, H., Titov, V., Gusiakov, V., Pelinovsky, E., Khramushin, V., & Kaistrenko, V. (1995). The 1994 Shikotan earthquake tsunamis. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 144(3–4), 855–874.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NOAA, NESDIS, National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)BoulderUSA
  2. 2.Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)University of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  3. 3.UNESCO/IOC, and NOAA International Tsunami Information CenterHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations