Evaluation of Interannual Simulations and Indian Ocean Dipole Events During 2000–2014 from a Basin Scale General Circulation Model

  • K. K. Sandeep
  • Vimlesh Pant


Interannual simulations performed using an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model (OGCM) for years 2000–2014 were validated against buoy measurements over the Indian Ocean (IO). Model-simulated fields were evaluated extensively using multiple statistical metrics to quantify the quality of model in reproducing variability in oceanic surface and subsurface features. The model-simulated sea surface temperature (SST) at different moored buoy locations exhibits high (close to + 0.9) correlation coefficient (R) with the ranges of standard deviation (SD) of simulated SST consistent with the corresponding buoy observations. The root mean square difference (RMSD) estimated between the buoy and simulated SST was found to be less than 0.6 °C at most of the buoy locations. The model-simulated subsurface temperature profile, including the thermocline, resembled good agreement with the buoy profiles. Intraseasonal and interannual variability of 20 °C isotherm (D20) was simulated reasonably well as observed at the respective buoy locations. Mean error in surface currents was low; however, the meridional component from model simulations showed a better agreement (RMSD < 0.25 m/s) with the observations as compared to zonal components (< 0.4 m/s) for the periods of buoy data availability. The Dipole Mode Index (DMI) derived from simulated SST reproduces the positive/negative Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events that occurred during the simulation period. Interannual variability in temperature, currents and oceanic mixed layer depth was analyzed in response to IOD events. The anomalies in equatorial currents were found to affect the strength of coastal currents along the Indian coastlines. Model simulations showed the enhanced (suppressed) coastal upwelling process along the Sumatra coast that leads to anomalous cooling (warming) off the Sumatra coast during the positive (negative) IOD events.


Sea surface temperature ROMS model Indian Ocean RAMA buoy interannual variability 



RAMA buoy data provided by TAO Project Office of NOAA/PMEL, USA is thankfully acknowledged. Surface current data obtained from Ocean Surface Current Analysis Real-time (OSCAR) through the webpage ( managed by OSCAR Project Office, Seattle, WA. Argo data were collected and made freely available by the International Argo Project and the national programs that contribute to it (, Argo is a pilot program of the Global Ocean Observing System. The TropFlux data are produced under collaboration between Laboratoired’ Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN) from Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL, Paris, France) and National Institute of Oceanography/CSIR (NIO, Goa, India). The study benefitted from the funding support under HOOFS program of INCOIS, Hyderabad (ESSO, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India). High Performance Computing (HPC) facility provided by IIT Delhi and Department of Science and Technology (DST-FIST, 2014), Govt. of India are thankfully acknowledged. Graphics generated in this manuscript using Ferret and NCL.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Atmospheric SciencesIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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