Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 175, Issue 6, pp 2093–2120 | Cite as

The Spontaneous Ray Log: A New Aid for Constructing Pseudo-Synthetic Seismograms

  • Adnan Quadir
  • Charles Lewis
  • Ruey-Juin Rau


Conventional synthetic seismograms for hydrocarbon exploration combine the sonic and density logs, whereas pseudo-synthetic seismograms are constructed with a density log plus a resistivity, neutron, gamma ray, or rarely a spontaneous potential log. Herein, we introduce a new technique for constructing a pseudo-synthetic seismogram by combining the gamma ray (GR) and self-potential (SP) logs to produce the spontaneous ray (SR) log. Three wells, each of which consisted of more than 1000 m of carbonates, sandstones, and shales, were investigated; each well was divided into 12 Groups based on formation tops, and the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient (PCC) was calculated for each “Group” from each of the GR, SP, and SR logs. The highest PCC-valued log curves for each Group were then combined to produce a single log whose values were cross-plotted against the reference well’s sonic ITT values to determine a linear transform for producing a pseudo-sonic (PS) log and, ultimately, a pseudo-synthetic seismogram. The range for the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) acceptable value for the pseudo-sonic logs of three wells was 78–83%. This technique was tested on three wells, one of which was used as a blind test well, with satisfactory results. The PCC value between the composite PS (SR) log with low-density correction and the conventional sonic (CS) log was 86%. Because of the common occurrence of spontaneous potential and gamma ray logs in many of the hydrocarbon basins of the world, this inexpensive and straightforward technique could hold significant promise in areas that are in need of alternate ways to create pseudo-synthetic seismograms for seismic reflection interpretation.


Pseudo-sonic logs self-potential log well log normalization gamma ray log well log evaluation 



We are deeply indebted to the Kansas Geological Survey for free use of well data from their Internet site, and we are also thankful to Mr. Carl Schaftenaar for use of purchased Geotools software (QuickSyn).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Resources EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan, ROC

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