Relation Between the Rainfall and Soil Moisture During Different Phases of Indian Monsoon
- 230 Downloads
Soil moisture is a key parameter in the prediction of southwest monsoon rainfall, hydrological modelling, and many other environmental studies. The studies on relationship between the soil moisture and rainfall in the Indian subcontinent are very limited; hence, the present study focuses the association between rainfall and soil moisture during different monsoon seasons. The soil moisture data used for this study are the ESA (European Space Agency) merged product derived from four passive and two active microwave sensors spanning over the period 1979–2013. The rainfall data used are India Meteorological Department gridded daily data. Both of these data sets are having a spatial resolution of 0.25° latitude–longitude grid. The study revealed that the soil moisture is higher during the southwest monsoon period similar to rainfall and during the pre-monsoon period, the soil moisture is lower. The annual cycle of both the soil moisture and rainfall has the similitude of monomodal variation with a peak during the month of August. The interannual variability of soil moisture and rainfall shows that they are linearly related with each other, even though they are not matched exactly for individual years. The study of extremes also exhibits the surplus amount of soil moisture during wet monsoon years and also the regions of surplus soil moisture are well coherent with the areas of high rainfall.
KeywordsSoil moisture rainfall flood and drought years interannual variability
We thank the Director, IITM and Executive Director, CCCR for all the support and necessary infrastructural facilities. We heartily thank Mr. Abdullah Sharief Kizhisseri for timely help to improve the manuscript. The data sets used in this study are properly acknowledged. We are also grateful to anonymous reviewers and the Editor Dr. Vadlamani Murty for constructive review comments.
- Dorigo, W., Jeu, R., Chung, D., Parinussa, R., Liu, Y., Wagner, W., & Fernández-Prieto, D. (2012). Evaluating global trends (1988–2010) in harmonized multi-satellite surface soil moisture. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(18). http://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052988.
- Kantharao, B., & Rakesh, V. (2017). Observational evidence for the relationship between spring soil moisture and June rainfall over the Indian region. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2116-7.
- Namias, J. (1959). Persistence of mid-tropospheric circulations between adjacent months and seasons. In B. Bolin (Ed.), The atmosphere and the sea in motion: scientific contributions to the Rossby memorial volume (pp. 240–248). New York: Rockefeller Institute Press.Google Scholar
- Namias, J. (1960). Factors in the initiation, perpetuation and termination of drought. Extract of publication No. 51, I. A. S. H. Commission of surface waters 81–94.Google Scholar
- New, M., Washington, R., Jack, C., & Hewitson, B. (2003). Sensitivity of southern African climate to soil-moisture. CLIVAR Exchanges, No. 8, International CLIVAR Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, 45–47.Google Scholar
- Pai, S. D., Sridhar, L., Rajeevan, M., Sreejith, O. P., Satbhai, S., & Mukhopadhyay, B. (2014). Development of a new high spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) long period (1901–2010) daily gridded rainfall data set over India and its comparison with existing data sets over the region. Mausam, 65, 1–8.Google Scholar
- Rajeevan, M., & Bhate, J. (2009). A high resolution daily gridded rain-fall dataset (1971–2005) for mesoscale meteorological studies. Current Science, 96, 558–562.Google Scholar
- Rajeevan, M., Bhate, J., Kale, J. D., Behera, B. L. S., Krishnan, R., & Yamagata, T. (2006). High resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region: analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Current Science, 91, 296–306.Google Scholar
- Shea, D. J., & Sontakke, N. A. (1995). The annual cycle of precipitation over the Indian subcontinent: Daily, monthly and seasonal statistics, NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-401 + STR Google Scholar
- Shukla, J. (1985). Predictability. In Advances in geophysics (Vol. 28B, pp. 87–122). Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Wagner, W., Dorigo, W., de Jeu, R., Fernandez-Prieto, D., Benveniste, J., Haas, E., & Ertl, M. (2012) Fusion of active and passive microwave observations to create an Essential Climate Variable data record on soil moisture. XXII ISPRS Congress. Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar