Importance of Chemical Composition of Ice Nuclei on the Formation of Arctic Ice Clouds
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Ice clouds play an important role in the Arctic weather and climate system but interactions between aerosols, clouds and radiation remain poorly understood. Consequently, it is essential to fully understand their properties and especially their formation process. Extensive measurements from ground-based sites and satellite remote sensing reveal the existence of two Types of Ice Clouds (TICs) in the Arctic during the polar night and early spring. TICs-1 are composed by non-precipitating small (radar-unseen) ice crystals of less than 30 μm in diameter. The second type, TICs-2, are detected by radar and are characterized by a low concentration of large precipitating ice crystals ice crystals (>30 μm). To explain these differences, we hypothesized that TIC-2 formation is linked to the acidification of aerosols, which inhibits the ice nucleating properties of ice nuclei (IN). As a result, the IN concentration is reduced in these regions, resulting to a lower concentration of larger ice crystals. Water vapor available for deposition being the same, these crystals reach a larger size. Current weather and climate models cannot simulate these different types of ice clouds. This problem is partly due to the parameterizations implemented for ice nucleation. Over the past 10 years, several parameterizations of homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation on IN of different chemical compositions have been developed. These parameterizations are based on two approaches: stochastic (that is nucleation is a probabilistic process, which is time dependent) and singular (that is nucleation occurs at fixed conditions of temperature and humidity and time-independent). The best approach remains unclear. This research aims to better understand the formation process of Arctic TICs using recently developed ice nucleation parameterizations. For this purpose, we have implemented these ice nucleation parameterizations into the Limited Area version of the Global Multiscale Environmental Model (GEM-LAM) and use them to simulate ice clouds observed during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska. Simulation results of the TICs-2 observed on April 15th and 25th (acidic cases) and TICs-1 observed on April 5th (non-acidic cases) are presented. Our results show that the stochastic approach based on the classical nucleation theory with the appropriate contact angle is better. Parameterizations of ice nucleation based on the singular approach tend to overestimate the ice crystal concentration in TICs-1 and TICs-2. The classical nucleation theory using the appropriate contact angle is the best approach to use to simulate the ice clouds investigated in this research.
KeywordsArctic ice clouds cloud microphysics numerical modeling Arctic climate ice nuclei
We thank NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments) and NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) for funding support and ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) for the data collected during ISDAC
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