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Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 173, Issue 5, pp 1431–1449 | Cite as

Interseismic Coupling, Megathrust Earthquakes and Seismic Swarms Along the Chilean Subduction Zone (38°–18°S)

  • M. MétoisEmail author
  • C. Vigny
  • A. Socquet
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Illapel, Chile, Earthquake on September 16th, 2015

Abstract

The recent expansion of dense GPS networks over plate boundaries allows for remarkably precise mapping of interseismic coupling along active faults. The interseismic coupling coefficient is related to the ratio between slipping velocity on the fault during the interseismic period and the long-term plates velocity, but the interpretation of coupling in terms of mechanical behavior of the fault is still unclear. Here, we investigate the link between coupling and seismicity over the Chilean subduction zone that ruptured three times in the last 5 years with major earthquakes (Maule Mw 8.8 in 2010, Iquique Mw 8.1 in 2014 and Illapel Mw 8.4 in 2015). We combine recent GPS data acquired over the margin (38°–18°S) with older data to get the first nearly continuous picture of the interseismic coupling variations on the subduction interface. Here, we show that at least six low coupling zones (LCZ), areas where coupling is low relatively to the neighboring highly coupled segments can be identified. We also find that for the three most recent Mw > 8 events, co-seismic asperities correlate well with highly coupled segments, while LCZs behaved as barriers and stopped the ruptures. The relation between coupling and background seismicity in the interseismic period before the events is less clear. However, we note that swarm sequences are prone to occur in intermediate coupling areas at the transition between LCZ and neighboring segments, and that the background seismicity tends to concentrate on the downdip part of the seismogenic locked zone. Thus, highly coupled segments usually exhibit low background seismicity. In this overall context, the Metropolitan segment that partly ruptured during the 2015 Illapel earthquake appears as an outlier since both coupling and background seismicity were high before the rupture, raising the issue of the remaining seismic hazard in this very densely populated area.

Keywords

Interseismic coupling subduction zone Chile megathrust earthquakes seismic swarms segmentation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to all people that have been involved throughout the years in the field work and maintenance of the GPS network, in particular D. Carrizo, A. Delorme, S. Peyrat, C. Bermejo and I. Ortega. This work has been supported by LiA “Montessus de Ballore” and received partial support from Grants ANR-2011-BS56-017 and ANR-2012-BS06-004 of the French ”Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)". GPS receivers for campaign measurements were provided by RESIF (Réseau sismologique français). We thank Rob McCaffrey for freely providing Tdefnode, and the Centro Sismologico Nacional of Universidad de Chile, Santiago, for making their catalog available. All the figures have been done using Generic Mapping Tools. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments on this work.

Supplementary material

24_2016_1280_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (7.8 mb)
Supplementary Material 1 (PDF 8018 kb)
24_2016_1280_MOESM2_ESM.txt (3 kb)
Supplementary Material 2 (TXT 4 kb)

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© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Ens de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5276 LGL-TPEVilleurbanneFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de GéologieUMR 8538, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris, PSL-Research UniversityParis cedex 05France
  3. 3.Institut des Sciences de la TerreCNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, Université Grenoble-AlpesSaint-Martin-d’HèresFrance

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