Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 172, Issue 3–4, pp 953–968 | Cite as

Tsunami Observations in Rivers from a Perspective of Tsunami Interaction with Tide and Riverine Flow

Article

Abstract

The observations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and the 2010 Chilean tsunami in several rivers in Japan and in the Columbia River in the USA are analyzed for patterns of tsunami behavior in river environments. Tsunamis in rivers exhibit actions very different from those observed on an open coast, but very similar among different rivers, though the action scale in different rivers varies greatly. We describe two tsunami effects in rivers as observed in field data. First, the river tide modulates the tsunami wave in a very specific way common to all rivers. Second, a strong near-field tsunami can cause significant prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. Both effects are inherent in tidal river environments, and have been reproduced numerically in a simplified 1-D river using a non-linear, shallow-water model with bottom friction. The numerical experiments highlight the indispensable role of a tsunami’s interaction with tide and riverine flow.

Keywords

Tsunami river water level measurements tide-tsunami interaction wave-current interaction numerical modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The water level data for rivers in Japan were provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) and Miyagi Prefectural Government, Japan. The record in Kobama harbor was kindly provided by Dr. Shigeho Kakehi, Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute. The record in Hachinohe Port was obtained from the Nationwide Ocean Wave Information network for Ports and Harbours (NOWPHAS). Gauge records in Columbia River have been obtained from the NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS public website http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/. DART record has been obtained from NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center public website http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Sincere thanks to Prof. Harry Yeh of the Oregon State University, USA for helpful comments and suggestions in the course of this work. The authors also thank the reviewers and the editor for valuable suggestions, and Mr. Igor Tolkov for careful reading and language-editing the manuscript.

References

  1. Abe K. (1986), Tsunami propagation in rivers of the Japanese Islands, Continental Shelf Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 655–677.Google Scholar
  2. Adityawan, M.B., Roh, M., Tanaka, H., Mano, A., Udo, K. (2012), Investigation of tsunami propagation characteristics in river and on land induced by The Great East Japan Earthquake 2011. J. Earthquake and Tsunami 6(3), 1250033. doi:10.1142/S1793431112500339.
  3. Burwell, D., Tolkova, E., and Chawla, A. (2007), Diffusion and Dispersion Characterization of a Numerical Tsunami Model, Ocean Modelling, 19, 10–30.Google Scholar
  4. Bowen, A.J., Inman, D.L., and Simmons, V.P. (1968), Wave set-down and set-up. J. Geophys. Res., 73, 2569–2577.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, C.-N., Tsai, C.-H., Wu, M.-H., and Tsai, C.-T. (2013), Numerical simulation of potential inundation in a coastal zone. J. Flood Rick Management, doi:10.1111/jfr3.12088.
  6. Fritz, H.M., Petroff, C.M., Cataln, P., Cienfuegos, R., Winckler, P., Kalligeris, N., Weiss, R., Barrientos, S.E., Meneses, G., Valderas-Bermejo, C., Ebeling, C., Papadopoulos, A., Contreras, M., Almar, R., Dominguez, J.C., and Synolakis, C.E. (2011), Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami. Pure Appl. Geophys. 168(11), 1989–2010, doi:10.1007/s00024-011-0283-5.
  7. Guza, R.T. and Thornton, E.B. (1981), Wave set-up on a natural beach. J. Geophys. Res., 86(C5), 4133–4137.Google Scholar
  8. Horel, J.D. (1984), Complex principal component analysis: theory and examples. J. of Climate and Appl. Meteorology 23: 1660–1673.Google Scholar
  9. Horrevoets, A.C., Savenije, H.H.G., Schuurman, J.N., and Graas, S. (2004), The influence of river discharge on tidal damping in alluvial estuaries, J. Hydrol., 294, 213–228.Google Scholar
  10. Kayane, K., Min, R., Tanaka, H., and Tinh, N.X. (2011), Influence of River Mouth Topography and Tidal Variation on Tsunami Propagation into Rivers. Journal of JSCE, Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering), vol.B2-67(1), 2011, pp.I_246-I_250 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  11. Konishi T., and Kinoshita T. (1983) Studies on the river invasion of the storm surge. Report of the National Research Center Disaster Prevention, 31, 67–87 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  12. Kowalik, Z. and Proshutinsky, A. (2010), Tsunami-tide interactions: A Cook Inlet Case Study. Continental Shelf Research, 30, 633–642.Google Scholar
  13. Kowalik, Z., Proshutinsky, T., and Proshutinsky, A. (2006), Tide-tsunami interactions. Sci. Tsunami Hazards, 24, 242–256.Google Scholar
  14. Lander, J.F., Lockridge, P.A., and Kozuch, M.J., Tsunamis Affecting the West Coast of the United States, 1806–1992 (US Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, USA, 1993).Google Scholar
  15. Le T.V.H., Nguyen H.N., Wolanski E., Thanh T.C, Haruyama S. (2007), The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnams Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71, 110–116.Google Scholar
  16. Liu H., Shimozono T., Takagawa T., Okayasu A., Fritz H.M., Sato S., and Tajima Y. (2013), The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Survey in Rikuzentakata and Comparison with Historical Events. Pure Appl. Geophys. 170, 1033–1046.Google Scholar
  17. Mori N., Takahashi T., Yasuda T., and Yanagisawa H. (2011), Survey of 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami inundation and runup. GRL, 38, L00G14, doi:10.1029/2011GL049210.
  18. Tinh, N.X., Tanaka H., Nagabayashi H. (2007), Wave Setup at River and Inlet Entrances Due to an Extreme Event. Proceedings of International Conference on Violent Flows (VF-2007), RIAM, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.Google Scholar
  19. Shimozono, T., Cui, H., Pietrzak, J.D., Fritz, H.M., Okayasu, A., and Hooper A. J. (2014), Short Wave Amplification and Extreme Runup by the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami. Pure Appl. Geophys. 171, 12, pp. 3217–3228, doi:10.1007/s00024-014-0803-1.
  20. Stoker J.J. (1957), Water Waves (Interscience Pub. Inc, New York, NY, USA).Google Scholar
  21. Tanaka, H., Ishino, K., Nawarathna, B., Nakagawa, H., Yano, S., Yasuda, H., Watanabe, Y. and Hasegawa, K. (2008), Field investigation of disaster in Sri Lankan rivers caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Journal Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering, 26(1), pp. 91–112.Google Scholar
  22. Tanaka, H. and Tinh, N.X. (2012), The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Waves Impact to Rivers in the Tohoku Region, Japan. Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering.Google Scholar
  23. Tanaka, H., Kayane, K., Adityawan, M.B., Farid, M. (2013), The effect of bed slope to the tsunami intrusion into rivers. Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Coastal Dynamics, 1601–1610.Google Scholar
  24. Tanaka, H., Kayane, K., Adityawan, M.B., Roh, M., Farid, M. (2014), Study on the relation of river morphology and tsunami propagation in rivers. Ocean Dynamics, 64(9), 1319–1332. doi:10.1007/s10236-014-0749-y.
  25. Titov, V.V. and Synolakis, C.E. (1998), Numerical Modeling of Tidal Wave Runup. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 124, 157–171.Google Scholar
  26. Tolkova, E. (2013), Tide-Tsunami Interaction in Columbia River, as Implied by Historical Data and Numerical Simulations. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(6), pp. 1115–1126, doi:10.1007/s00024-012-0518-0.
  27. Tolkova, E. (2014). Land-Water Boundary Treatment for a Tsunami Model With Dimensional Splitting. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(9), pp. 2289–2314, doi:10.1007/s00024-014-0825-8.
  28. Tsuji, Y., Yanuma, T., Murata, I., and Fujiwara C. (1991), Tsunami ascending in rivers as an undular bore. Natural Hazards, 4, 257–266.Google Scholar
  29. Wilson, B.W. and Torum, A., Runup Heights of the Major Tsunami on North American Coasts, In The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964: Oceanography and Coastal Engineering (Committee on the Alaska Earthquake, National Research Council) (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA, 1972) pp. 158–180.Google Scholar
  30. Wilson, B.W. and Torum, A., Effects of the Tsunamis: An Engineering Study, In The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964: Oceanography and Coastal Engineering (Committee on the Alaska Earthquake, National Research Council) (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA, 1972) pp. 361–526.Google Scholar
  31. Yasuda, H. (2010), One-dimensional study on propagation of tsunami wave in river channels. J. Hyd. Engrg., 136(2), 93–105.Google Scholar
  32. Yeh, H., Tolkova, E., Jay, D., Talke, S., Fritz, H. (2012), Tsunami Hydrodynamics in the Columbia River. Journal of Disaster Research, vol. 7, no. 5, 604–608.Google Scholar
  33. Zhang, Y.J., Witter, R.C., Priest, G.R. (2011), Tide-tsunami interaction in 1964 Prince William Sound tsunami. Ocean Modelling, 40, 246–259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NorthWest Research AssociatesBellevueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations